Noise (criminal activity).

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A racket is an organized criminal act, usually in which the criminal act is a form of business or a way to earn illegal money regularly or briefly but repeatedly. A racket is often a repeated or continuous criminal operation.
Originally and often still specifically, a racket was a criminal act in which the perpetrator or perpetrators offer a service that is fraudulently offered to solve a nonexistent problem, a service that will not be put into effect, or a service that would not exist without the racket. Conducting a racket is racketeering.[1] Particularly, the potential problem may be caused by the same party that offers to solve it, but that fact may be concealed, with the specific intent to engender continual patronage for this party.

The most common example of a racket is the “protection racket”, which promises to protect the target business or person from dangerous individuals in the neighborhood and then either collects the money or causes damage to the business until the owner pays. The racket exists as both the problem and its solution, and it is used as a method of extortion.

However, the term “racket” has expanded in definition and may be used less strictly to refer to any illegal organized crime operation, including those that do not necessarily involve fraudulent practices. For example, “racket” may be used to refer to the “numbers racket” or the “drug racket”, neither of which generally or explicitly involve fraud or deception with regard to the intended clientele.

Racketeering is most often associated with organized crime, and the term was coined by the Employers’ Association of Chicago in June 1927 in a statement about the influence of organized crime in the Teamsters union.[2]


  • 1 Examples
  • 2 RICO Act
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links


Examples of crimes that may be alleged to be part of a pattern of racketeering activity include

  • A protection racket is a form of extortion whereby racketeers offer to “protect” property from damage in exchange for a fee, while also being responsible, in part or in whole, for the property damage.
  • A fencing racket is an operation specializing in the resale of stolen goods.
  • A numbers racket is any unauthorized lottery or illegal gambling operation.
  • Money laundering and other creative accounting practices that are misused in ways to disguise sources of illegal funds.
  • Theft operations, including: burglary, home invasion, robbery, identity theft, auto theft, art theft, car hijacking, truck hijacking, organized retail crime, shoplifting, and copyright infringement (including the sale of counterfeit goods)
  • Fraud and embezzlement operations, including: credit card fraud, check fraud, health care fraud, insurance fraud, mail and wire fraud, securities fraud, bank fraud, mortgage fraud, skimming (fraud), electoral fraud, confidence tricks, and bid rigging
  • Kidnapping
  • Murder and murder-for-hire
  • Bribery and police corruption
  • Organized academic dishonesty by school administrators, as in the Atlanta Public Schools cheating scandal
  • Loan sharking
  • Computer crimes
  • Drug trafficking
  • Arms trafficking
  • Extortion
  • Prostitution and commercial sexual exploitation of children
  • Human trafficking
  • People smuggling
  • Tax evasion and cigarette smuggling
  • Witness tampering and intimidation
  • Skimming (casinos)
  • Operating chop shops
  • Illegal gambling or bookmaking, including match fixing
  • Criminal operation of otherwise ostensibly legal operations, such as strip clubs, casinos, and waste management firms
  • Poaching, overfishing, illegal logging, illegal construction, and illegal mining
  • Dog fighting, cockfighting, and bullfighting

RICO Act[edit]

Main article: Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act

On October 15, 1970, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (18 U.S.C. §§ 1961–1968), commonly referred to as the “RICO Act”, became United States law. The RICO Act allowed law enforcement to charge a person or group of people with racketeering, defined as committing multiple violations of certain varieties within a ten-year period. The purpose of the RICO Act was stated as “the elimination of the infiltration of organized crime and racketeering into legitimate organizations operating in interstate commerce”. S.Rep. No. 617, 91st Cong., 1st Sess. 76 (1968). However, the statute is sufficiently broad to encompass illegal activities relating to any enterprise affecting interstate or foreign commerce.

Section 1961(10) of Title 18 provides that the Attorney General of the United States may designate any department or agency to conduct investigations authorized by the RICO statute and such department or agency may use the investigative provisions of the statute or the investigative power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law. Absent a specific designation by the Attorney General, jurisdiction to conduct investigations for violations of 18 U.S.C. § 1962 lies with the agency having jurisdiction over the violations constituting the pattern of racketeering activity listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1961.[3]

In the US, civil racketeering laws are also used in federal and state courts.

See also[edit]

  • Addiopizzo
  • Pizzo (extortion)


  • ^ “Racketeering”. Retrieved cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ David Witwer, “‘The Most Racketeer-Ridden Union in America’: The Problem of Corruption in the Teamsters Union During the 1930s”, in Corrupt Histories, Emmanuel Kreike and William Chester Jordan, eds., University of Rochester Press, 2004. ISBN 1-58046-173-5
  • ^ “Organized Crime and Racketeering”. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
  • External links[edit]

    • “Organized Crime.” Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology.

    McCowan, No. 6 Miss. St. Overwhelm Jackson St., 105-38

    McCowan, No. 6 Miss. St. Overwhelm Jackson St., 105-38

    Some of the questions surrounding Mississippi State in the preseason centered on its offense and how the Bulldogs would replace the scoring from four record-setting seniors.

    U.N. Says Astana Meeting on Syria a Missed Opportunity, No Progress

    Russia, Turkey and Iran failed to make any tangible progress in setting up a Syrian constitutional committee at a meeting in the Kazakh capital Astana, the office of U.N. Syria envoy Staffan de Mistura said in a statement on Thursday.

    Germany’s Merkel to Miss G20 Opening After Aircraft Woes

    German Chancellor Angela Merkel will miss the opening of the G20 summit in Argentina after what she called a “serious malfunction” forced her government plane to make an unscheduled but safe landing.

    Nine Trey Gangsters

    American street gang

    The Nine Trey Gangsters (also referred to as Billy Bad Ass or Billies)[1][2] are a set of the United Blood Nation street gang, the latter of which is a set of the Bloods street gang.[3][4][5] The gang was established in 1993 at the Rikers Island jail complex in New York City, and operates on the East Coast of the United States.[3] The gang has operated in the U.S. state of Virginia and other states. It has allegedly been engaged in the sex trafficking of women and racketeering in Virginia, New York, North Carolina, Baltimore, New Jersey and other areas.[4] The gang was also allegedly involved in the distribution of illegal drugs, including heroin, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, marijuana and prescription painkillers in these areas.[4] Further allegations include dealing in counterfeit U.S. currency and using counterfeit currency to “finance wholesale drug purchases”.[4]

    The gang has been investigated by the FBI, ATF and various gang task forces in the United States.[4] It has also been investigated by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.[3]

    Arrests and prosecution[edit]

    In July 2006, approximately 60 members of the gang were arrested as an outcome of a significant police operation called “Operation Nine Connect”.[5] After these initial arrests, at least another 30 arrests were made.[5]

    In June 2011, Robert “Snoop” Christie pleaded guilty to a weapons charge in a plea bargain. This conviction received a five-year prison sentence, which was added on to an eight-year sentence Christie was already serving for a previous weapon and drug conviction.[6]

    In March 2013, eight alleged gang members and associates appeared in federal court facing charges based on a “major crack cocaine investigation”.[3] Specific details of the case were sealed under court order at that time because an ongoing investigation was being conducted by the FBI and Drug Enforcement Administration, and it was stated that the release of information could have had an “adverse result” upon the investigation.[3]

    In February 2014, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia announced that following a trial that began on February 11, 2014, three members of the gang, including Thaddaeus Snow, were convicted by a federal jury for racketeering, robbery, cocaine distribution, sex trafficking and firearms-related offenses.[7] Upon this conviction, 24 individuals named in the initial September 2013 indictment were also subsequently convicted.[7]

    In September 2016, four members of the Nine Trey Gangsters were indicted for their alleged involvement in 10 shootings that left 5 dead during December 2015 in Norfolk, Virginia.

    In November 2018, rapper 6ix9ine, birth name Daniel Hernandez, and four members of the Nine Trey Gangsters were arrested by ATF Special Agents and charged with racketeering related to operating a criminal enterprise, conspiracy to murder, robbery, extortion and drug distribution.[8] (See Trial of 6ix9ine)

    See also[edit]

    • Gangs portal
    • Gangs in the United States
    • List of gangs in the United States


  • ^ “”United Blood Nation history, terminology, background””. cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} Barratt, Robin (2011). The Mammoth Book of Hard Bastards. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 184901759X.
  • ^ Harris, Donnie (2004). Gangland. Holy Fire Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 0976111241.
  • ^ a b c d e Green, Frank (March 14, 2013). “Alleged gang members in major cocaine bust appear in court”. Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  • ^ a b c d e “Nine Trey gang members sentenced to prison”. Fairfax News. May 16, 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  • ^ a b c Ratcliffe, Jerry H. (2012). “Intelligence-led Policing”. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 1136308598.
  • ^ “Trenton Nine Trey Gangsters leader involved in gang clash that left three dead pleads guilty to weapons charge”. June 21, 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  • ^ a b “Nine Trey Gang Leader, Enforcer, and Cocaine Supplier Each Convicted of Multiple Racketeering Offenses”. FBI. February 21, 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  • ^ “Brooklyn rapper 6ix9ine arrested on racketeering charges”.

  • Canceled project intro and more(sfx and VA missing!)!.?.!-Please reviewed before viewing-. Hello everyone! What you will see below is introduction to my canceled Christmas job. It (no name yet) was supposed to be a full lenght comedy/adventure flick( around a hr or longer) with specialist voice acting, solely composed songs (absent in this sneak peek) and more.People consisted of in introductory credit scores do not exist, I’ve just placed random names there to see how it will certainly look =-RRB-. Furthermore I’ve rendered a tiny component of other job that I’ve been functioning on. A drama that would hopefully be a pretty huge action onward from The Demise, with it’s enhanced visuals( eventho I became worse COMPUTER now heh, obtained scorched 2 times from overheating while making it, needed to change parts )narration, little bit of voice acting and story with some suprises. In the footage shown there is a little lady however she is simply a 2nd plan personality, it’s not a tale regarding her. I’m informing you this so you won’t believe its one more” The Demise” =P. While watching it please bear in mind that these are simply small as well as insufficient alpha previews of big jobs, therefore you won’t comprehend what is going on. Oh yea, sorry for the lousy high quality, COMPUTER didn’t take care of much more. The factor I’m revealing you these bits is that lately I had a really harsh

    time in my private life( common stuff, work crysis, lease not paid one more month =P )and also it does not seem to be obtaining any type of far better anytime quickly. Due to the fact that of this, I have no idea if I will ever before be able to complete them so I’ve chosen to submit what I’ve done so much while I still got the opportunity. This brief clip is for every one of you that motivated me to make even more motion pictures, by leaving excellent remarks, composing e-mails to me or simply seeing my machinima computer animations. What you simply saw/will see in this preview is thanks to you =-RRB-. Likewise, special thanks to everyone who donated their old PC parts and also few dollars for me, after screening of The Demise couple of months earlier in Second Life, and also to Ricky Grove who set up every little thing and also sent it to me by means of mail =-RRB-. Sorry that I could not do even more. I have assured as soon as, that my every next movie will be a big improvement over the last one and also I wish that this clip prooves that I’m a male of my word( eventho all you can compare there is visuals, due to the fact that it got no SFX yet, voice acting as well as it’s simply short component of complete film cut out from the center). I know I’ve dissapointed numerous individuals as well as I’m sorry concerning that, I love to make computer animations as well as I was doing all I can to finish this.
    Your assistance really matters so if you like my videos and also would like me to complete them, do more as well as far better ones, share links to my videos to your pals or in your blogs. Perhaps it will assist me to obtain noticed by a person who can offer me a typical job, so I can proceed what I like to do (location does not issue). Many thanks for the assistance every person =-RRB-. All the most effective,. Daniel, aka Surgee. PS: By popular demand, after finishing these, I had “Unofficial Patch Trailer 2″( common title in the meantime) in
    strategies, obtained some more insane ideas,

    hehe. Another time I think =-RRB-. Music used:. Residence Alone( John Hughes) OST:. John Williams- Making The Plane. Big Wheel( Columbia Pictures) OST:. Danny Elfman- The Growing Montage. Danny Elfman- Sandras


    Danny Elfman -Jennys Theme.
    V for Vendetta (Warner Bros.) OST:

    . Dario Marianelli- Valerie.
    WALL-E (Pixar Animation Studios) OST:.
    Thomas Newman – Worry Wait.
    All songs tracks used in this video clip are the building of their respective proprietors. I’ve utilized very same method
    here right here in The DemiseDeath so it’s
    basicly tons of loads that Images’ve drawn in photoshop( using an utilizing =O ), exported to Sony Vegas and las vega there.

    I additionally found out some 3d modelling to produce couple of things that I needed for the film (such as the sleigh or bunny). These are my first versions ever so they ain’t that fantastic. I additionally tried to not include way too much information to them to fit wow’s outdated graphics.

    Great Western Railway – Five and the Missing Jewels!.?.!Director: Pete Candeland Production Company: Friends Electric Creatives: Matt Woolner & Steve Wioland Agency: adam & eveDDB.

    Leo Ryan

    For the Australian footballer, see Leo Ryan (footballer).

    Leo Joseph Ryan Jr. (May 5, 1925 – November 18, 1978) was an American teacher and politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the U.S. Representative from California’s 11th congressional district from 1973 until his assassination as part of the Jonestown massacre in 1978.

    After the Watts Riots of 1965, Assemblyman Ryan took a job as a substitute school teacher to investigate and document conditions in the area. In 1970, he decided to investigate the conditions of California prisons. While presiding as chairman of the Assembly committee that oversaw prison reform, he used a pseudonym to enter Folsom Prison as an inmate. During his time in Congress, Ryan traveled to Newfoundland to investigate the practice of seal hunting. He was also famous for vocal criticism of the lack of Congressional oversight of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and authored the Hughes–Ryan Amendment, passed in 1974.

    Ryan was shot and killed at an airstrip in Guyana in November 1978 while his party was attempting to escape a dangerous situation. He had traveled to Guyana to investigate claims that people were being held against their will at the Peoples Temple Jonestown settlement. Ryan was killed the same day of the mass suicide, which occurred just 11 days after he was re-elected for a fourth term. He was the second sitting member of the U.S. House of Representatives to have been assassinated in office, the first being James M. Hinds in 1868.[1][2] He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal posthumously in 1983.


    • 1 Early life and education
    • 2 Career
      • 2.1 State of California
      • 2.2 United States Congress
    • 3 Peoples Temple
      • 3.1 Travels to Jonestown
      • 3.2 Jungle ambush and assassination
      • 3.3 Conviction of Larry Layton
    • 4 Memorial
      • 4.1 Burial
    • 5 Legacy and honors
      • 5.1 Daughters
      • 5.2 Anniversaries
    • 6 In popular culture
    • 7 Electoral history
    • 8 Published works
    • 9 See also
    • 10 Notes
    • 11 References
    • 12 Further reading
    • 13 External links

    Early life and education[edit]

    Ryan was born in Lincoln, Nebraska.[3] Throughout his early life, his family moved frequently through Illinois, Florida, New York, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. He graduated from Campion Jesuit High School in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, in 1943.[4][5] He then received V-12 officer training at Bates College and served with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 as a submariner.[6]

    Ryan graduated from Nebraska’s Creighton University with a B.A. in 1949 and an M.S. in 1951.[3] He served as a teacher, school administrator and South San Francisco city councilman from 1956 to 1962. He taught English at Capuchino High School, and chaperoned the marching band in 1961 to Washington, D.C., to participate in President John F. Kennedy’s inaugural parade.[7] Ryan was inspired by Kennedy’s call to service in his inaugural address, and decided to run for higher office.[8]


    Official Congressional photo from Ryan’s first term as Congressman, 1973

    State of California[edit]

    In 1962, Ryan was elected mayor of South San Francisco. He served less than a year as mayor, before taking a seat in the California State Assembly’s 27th district, winning his assembly race by a margin of 20,000 votes.[8][9] He had previously run for the State Assembly’s 25th district in 1958, but lost to Republican Louis Francis.[9] Ryan served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1964 and 1968,[3] and he held his Assembly seat through 1972, when he was elected to the United States House of Representatives. He was successively elected three more times to the United States Congress.[3]

    U.S. Congresswoman and former California State Senator and Ryan aide Jackie Speier described Ryan’s style of investigation as “experiential legislating”.[8] After the Watts Riots of 1965, Assemblyman Ryan went to the area and took a job as a substitute school teacher to investigate and document conditions in the area. In 1970, using a pseudonym, Ryan had himself arrested, detained, and strip searched to investigate conditions in the California prison system. He stayed as an inmate for ten days in the Folsom Prison, while presiding as chairman on the Assembly committee that oversaw prison reform.[10][11]

    As a California Assemblyman, Ryan also served as the Chairman of legislative subcommittee hearings and presided over hearings involving his later successor as Congressman, Tom Lantos.[12] Ryan pushed through important educational policies in California and authored what came to be known as the Ryan Act, which established an independent regulatory commission to monitor educational credentialing in the state.[13]

    United States Congress[edit]

    During his time in Congress, Ryan went to Newfoundland with James Jeffords to investigate the inhumane killing of seals,[14][15] and he was famous for vocal criticism of the lack of Congressional oversight of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), authoring the Hughes–Ryan Amendment,[16][17] which would have required extensive CIA notification of Congress about planned covert operations.[18][19] Congressman Ryan once told Dick Cheney that leaking a state secret was an appropriate way for a member of Congress to block an “ill-conceived operation”.[20] Ryan supported Patty Hearst, and along with Senator S. I. Hayakawa, delivered Hearst’s application for a presidential commutation to the Pardon Attorney.[21]

    Peoples Temple[edit]

    Further information: Peoples Temple, Timothy Stoen, and Peoples Temple in San Francisco

    In 1978, reports regarding widespread abuse and human rights violations in Jonestown among the Peoples Temple, led by cult leader Jim Jones, began to filter out of the organization’s Guyana enclaves. Ryan was friends with the father of former Temple Member Bob Houston, whose mutilated body was found near train tracks on October 5, 1976, three days after a taped telephone conversation with Houston’s ex-wife in which leaving the Temple was discussed.[22] Ryan’s interest was further aroused by the custody battle between the leader of a “Concerned Relatives” group, Timothy Stoen, and Jones following a Congressional “white paper” written by Stoen detailing the events.[23][24] Ryan was one of 91 Congressmen to write Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham on Stoen’s behalf.[22][23]

    Later, after reading an article in the San Francisco Examiner, Ryan declared his intention to go to Jonestown, an agricultural commune in Guyana where Jim Jones and roughly 1,000 Temple members resided. Ryan’s choice was also influenced both by the Concerned Relatives group, which consisted primarily of Californians, as were most Temple members, and by his own characteristic distaste for social injustice.[25] According to the San Francisco Chronicle, while investigating the events, the United States Department of State “repeatedly stonewalled Ryan’s attempts to find out what was going on in Jonestown”, and told him that “everything was fine”.[8]

    The State Department characterized possible action by the United States government in Guyana against Jonestown as creating a potential “legal controversy”, but Ryan at least partially rejected this viewpoint.[26] In a later article in The Chronicle, Ryan was described as having “bucked the local Democratic establishment and the Jimmy Carter administration’s State Department” in order to prepare for his own investigation.[11]

    Travels to Jonestown[edit]

    On November 1, 1978, Ryan announced that he would visit Jonestown.[27] He did so as part of a government investigation and received permission and government funds to do so.[28] He made the journey in his role as chairman of a congressional subcommittee with jurisdiction over US citizens living in foreign countries. He asked the other members of his Bay Area congressional delegation to join him on the investigation to Jonestown, but they all declined his invitation.[8] Ryan had also asked his friend, Indiana Congressman and future Vice President Dan Quayle, to accompany him – Quayle had served with Ryan on the Government Operations Committee – but Quayle was unable to go on the trip.[29]

    While the party was initially planned to consist of only a few members of the Congressman’s staff and press as part of the congressional delegation, once the media learned of the trip the entourage ballooned to include, among others, concerned relatives of Temple members. Congressman Ryan traveled to Jonestown with 17 Bay Area relatives of Peoples Temple members, several newspaper reporters and an NBC TV team.[30] When the legal counsel for Jones attempted to impose several restrictive conditions on the visit, Ryan responded that he would be traveling to Jonestown whether Jones permitted it or not. Ryan’s stated position was that a “settlement deep in the bush might be reasonably run on authoritarian lines”.[30] However, residents of the settlement must be allowed to come and go as they pleased. He further asserted that if the situation had become “a gulag”, he would do everything he could to “free the captives”.[30]

    Jungle ambush and assassination[edit]

    Main article: Jonestown

    On November 14, according to the Foreign Affairs Committee report,[31] Ryan left Washington and arrived in Georgetown, the capital of Guyana located 150 miles (240 km) away from Jonestown, with his congressional delegation of government officials, media representatives and some members of the “Concerned Relatives”.[32]

    JonestownGeorgetownKaituma Jonestown, Guyana.

    That night the delegation stayed at a local hotel where, despite confirmed reservations, most of the rooms had been canceled and reassigned, leaving the delegation sleeping in the lobby.[33] For three days, Ryan continued negotiation with Jones’s legal counsel and held perfunctory meetings with embassy personnel and Guyanese officials.[34]

    While in Georgetown, Ryan visited the Temple’s Georgetown headquarters in the suburb of Lamaha Gardens.[35] Ryan asked to speak to Jones by radio. Sharon Amos, the highest-ranking Temple member present, told Ryan that he could not because his present visit was unscheduled.[32] On November 17, Ryan’s aide Jackie Speier (who became a Congresswoman in April 2008), the United States embassy Deputy Chief of Mission Richard Dwyer, a Guyanese Ministry of Information officer, nine journalists, and four Concerned Relatives representatives of the delegation boarded a small plane for the flight to an airfield at Port Kaituma a few miles outside of Jonestown.[31]

    At first, only the Temple legal counsel was allowed off the plane, but eventually the entire entourage (including Gordon Lindsay, reporting for NBC) was allowed in. Initially, the welcome at Jonestown was warm,[28] but Temple member Vernon Gosney handed a note to NBC correspondent Don Harris (mistaking him for Ryan) which read “Please help me get out of Jonestown,” listing himself and Temple member Monica Bagby.[30]

    That night, the media and the delegation were returned to the airfield for accommodations following Jones’s refusal to allow them to stay the night. The rest of the group remained.[31] The next morning, Ryan, Speier, and Dwyer all continued their interviews, and in the morning met a woman who secretly expressed her wish to leave Jonestown with her family and another family. Around 11:00 a.m. local time, the media and the delegation returned and took part in interviewing Peoples Temple members. Around 3:00 p.m., 14 Temple defectors, and Larry Layton posing as a defector, boarded a truck and were taken to the airstrip, with Ryan wishing to stay another night to assist any others who wished to leave. Shortly thereafter, a knife attack on Congressman Ryan failed while he was arbitrating a family dispute on leaving.[36] Against Ryan’s protests, Deputy Chief of Mission Dwyer ordered Ryan to leave, but he promised to return later to address the dispute.[31]

    Camera-shot by Bob Brown (NBC) of shooters

    The entire group left Jonestown and arrived at the Kaituma airstrip by 4:45 p.m. local time. Their exit transport planes, a twin-engine Otter and a Cessna, did not arrive until 5:10 p.m. The smaller six-seat Cessna was just taxiing to the end of the runway when one of its occupants, Larry Layton, opened fire on those inside, wounding several.

    Concurrently, several other Peoples Temple members who had escorted the group out began to open fire on the transport plane, killing Congressman Ryan, three journalists and a defecting Temple member, while wounding nine others, including Speier.[22][37] The gunmen riddled Congressman Ryan’s body with bullets before shooting him in the face.[38] The passengers on the Cessna subdued Larry Layton and the surviving people on both planes fled into nearby fields during and after the attack.[31]

    That afternoon, before the news became public, the wife of Ryan’s aide, William Holsinger, received three threatening phone calls. The caller allegedly stated, “Tell your husband that his meal ticket just had his brains blown out, and he better be careful.” The Holsingers then fled to Lake Tahoe and later to a ranch in Houston. They never returned to San Francisco.[39]

    Following its takeoff, the Cessna radioed in a report of the attack, and the U.S. Ambassador, John R. Burke, went to the residence of Prime Minister Forbes Burnham.[31] It was not until the next morning that the Guyanese army could cut through the jungle and reach Jonestown.[31] They discovered 909 of its inhabitants dead. They died in what the United States House of Representatives described as a “mass suicide/murder ritual”.[31]

    Conviction of Larry Layton[edit]

    Larry Layton, brother of the former Peoples Temple member Deborah Layton (author of Seductive Poison), was convicted in 1986 of conspiracy in the murder of Leo Ryan.[40] Temple defectors boarding the truck to Port Kaituma warned about Larry Layton that “there’s no way he’s a defector. He’s too close to Jones.”[41] Layton was the only former Peoples Temple member to be tried in the United States for criminal acts relating to the murders at Jonestown.[42][43] He was convicted on four different murder-related counts.[44]

    On March 3, 1987, Layton was sentenced to concurrent sentences of life in prison for “aiding and abetting the murder of Congressman Leo Ryan”, “conspiracy to murder an internationally protected person, Richard Dwyer, Deputy Chief of Mission for the United States in the Republic of Guyana”, as well as 15 years in prison on other related counts.[45] At that time, he was eligible for parole in five years.[46] On June 3, 1987, Layton’s motion to set aside the conviction “on the ground that he was denied the effective assistance of counsel during his second trial” was denied by the United States District Court of the Northern District of California.[46] After spending 18 years in prison, Layton was released from custody in April 2002.[47]


    In honor of Leo Ryan, Veterans for Peace Chapter 124 was named after him. VFP 124 Leo J. Ryan Memorial.


    Ryan’s headstone

    Leo Ryan’s body was returned to the United States and interred at Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno, California. The official Congressional Memorial Services for Ryan were compiled into a book: Leo J. Ryan – Memorial Services – Held In The House Of Representatives & Senate Of The U.S., Together With Remarks.[48] Ryan’s younger sister Shannon said she was surprised both by the number of supporters that attended the funeral, and by the “outgrowth of real, honest sorrow”.[49]

    Legacy and honors[edit]

    • In 1983, Ryan was posthumously awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress, as the only member of Congress killed while in the line of duty; the bill was signed by President Ronald Reagan.[50][51] In President Reagan’s remarks about the medal, he said: “It was typical of Leo Ryan’s concern for his constituents that he would investigate personally the rumors of mistreatment in Jonestown that reportedly affected so many from his district.”[50] Ryan’s daughters Patricia and Erin had helped to garner support for the Congressional Gold Medal, in time for the fifth anniversary of Ryan’s death.[52]
    • In 1984, the National Archives and Records Center in San Bruno, California was named the Leo J. Ryan Federal Building in his honor, through a Congressional bill passed unanimously and signed by President Reagan.[53]
    • Jackie Speier, Ryan’s former aide, was elected in 1998 to the California State Senate. In 2008 she won a special election to the US Congress from California’s 12th congressional district, much of it formerly Ryan’s constituency.[54] After redistricting, since 2013 it has been designated as the state’s 14th congressional district.


    Shannon Jo Ryan, Ryan’s eldest daughter, joined the Rajneesh movement. After the Bhagwan moved to Oregon in 1981, she joined his commune, which became known as Rajneeshpuram.[28][55][56] Taking the name Ma Amrita Pritam, by December 1982 she had married another member, who also lived at the commune.[57]

    Patricia Ryan received her Masters in public administration from George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and later served (2001–12) until her retirement as executive director of the California Mental Health Directors Association (now the County Behavioral Health Directors Association of California). During the 1980s, she became involved as a volunteer and eventually served as president of the board of the national Cult Awareness Network.[58][59][self-published source]

    Erin Ryan went to University of California’s Hastings School of Law, afterward working until 1992 as an intelligence analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency. She next worked in New York as a pastry chef for eight years. In 2000, Erin Ryan joined California Senator Jackie Speier in politics, working as her aide.[58]


    Sign at the Leo J. Ryan Memorial Park
    Leo J. Ryan Post Office Building

    On the 25th anniversary of his death, a special memorial tribute was held in his honor in Foster City, California. Ryan’s family and friends, including his three daughters and Jackie Speier, attended. The San Francisco Chronicle reported that “Over and over today, people described a great man who continually exceeded his constituents’ expectations.”[60]

    Near the end of the memorial service, parents of those who had died in Jonestown stood to honor and thank Congressman Ryan for giving his life while trying to save their children. After the service ended, mounted police escorted the family and friends into Foster City’s Leo J. Ryan Memorial Park. A wreath was laid next to a commemorative rock that honors Ryan.[60]

    The same year, his daughter Erin Ryan, an aide to Speier, attended a memorial for those who died at Jonestown, held at the Evergreen Cemetery in Oakland.[61] On the anniversary of Congressman Ryan’s death, Jackie Speier and Patricia Ryan, his daughter and friend, visit his grave at the Golden Gate National Cemetery.[30]

    For the 30th anniversary, US Congresswoman Jackie Speier sponsored a bill to designate the United States Postal Service facility at 210 South Ellsworth Avenue in San Mateo, California, as the “Leo J. Ryan Post Office Building”.[62] President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 21, 2008.[63] On November 17, 2008, Jackie Speier spoke at the dedication ceremony at the post office. In part, she said,

    There are those – still, thirty years after his passing – who question his motives, or the wisdom of his actions. But criticism was just fine with Leo. Leo Ryan never did anything because he thought it would make him popular. He was more interested in doing what he knew was right.[64]

    In popular culture[edit]

    Ryan has been portrayed in films about the Jonestown mass murder/suicide, including by actor Gene Barry in the 1979 film Guyana: Crime of the Century,[65] and by Ned Beatty in the 1980 made-for-TV miniseries, Guyana Tragedy: The Story of Jim Jones.[66]

    His assassination was discussed in the documentaries Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple (2006),[67] on The History Channel documentaries: Cults: Dangerous Devotion[68] and Jonestown: Paradise Lost (2006),[69] as well as the MSNBC production, Witness to Jonestown (2008), which aired on the 30th anniversary of Ryan’s assassination and the mass suicides at Jonestown.[70]

    Electoral history[edit]


    Published works[edit]


    • USA/From Where We Stand: Readings in Contemporary American Problems, Paperback book, Fearon Publishers, (1970)
    • Understanding California Government and Politics, 152 pages, Fearon Publishers, (1966)

    Congressional reports

    • NATO, pressures from the southern tier: Report of a study mission to Europe, August 5–27, 1975, pursuant to H. Res. 315, 22 pages, Published by United States Government Print Office, (1975)
    • Vietnam and Korea: Human rights and U.S. assistance : a study mission report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, 15 pages, Published by United States Government Print Office, (1975)
    • The United States oil shortage and the Arab-Israeli conflict: Report of a study mission to the Middle East from October 22 to November 3, 1973, 76 pages, Published by United States Government Print Office, (1973)

    See also[edit]

    • Government of the United States portal
    • Biography portal
    • Leo J. Ryan Federal Building
    • Destructive cult
    • List of assassinated American politicians
    • United States Congress members killed or wounded in office
    • List of United States Congress members who died in office (1950–99)


  • ^ Other members of the House of Representatives have been killed while in office, though not as assassination attempts, and others have been the target of deliberate assassination attempts, though none of the other attempts were successful. See United States Congress members killed or wounded in office for details
  • ^ Peters, Justin. “The Forgotten, Non-Kool-Aid-Drinking Victims of the Jonestown Massacre”. Retrieved October 1, cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} “Thirty-five years later, Ryan remains the only U.S. representative to be killed in the line of duty.”
  • ^ a b c d United States Congress. “RYAN, Leo Joseph, (1925–1978)”. United States Congress. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  • ^ Campion Jesuit High School. “Campion Knights”. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  • ^ Campion Jesuit High School. “Campion Forever”. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  • ^ Campion Jesuit High School. “Campion Knights Notables”. Archived from the original on February 15, 2006. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  • ^ Michael Newton (April 17, 2014). Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 491–492. ISBN 978-1-61069-286-1.
  • ^ a b c d e Simon, Mark (December 10, 1998). “A Trip Into The Heart Of Darkness: Always larger than life, Leo Ryan courted danger”. San Francisco Chronicle. p. A17.
  • ^ a b c Vassar, Alex; Shane Meyers (2007). “Leo J. Ryan, Democratic”. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
  • ^ Wright, Erik Olin (1973). The Politics of Punishment: A Critical Analysis of Prisons in America. Harper & Row. p. 266.
  • ^ a b Haddock, Vicki (November 16, 2003). “Jackie Speier – moving on, moving up; Survivor of Jonestown ambush plans run for lieutenant governor”. San Francisco Chronicle. p. D1.
  • ^ Schwartzman, Edward (1989). Political Campaign Craftsmanship: A Professional’s Guide to Campaigning for Public Office. Transaction Publishers. p. 209. ISBN 0-88738-742-X.
  • ^ Gideonse, Hendrik D. (1992). Teacher Education Policy: narratives, stories, and cases. SUNY Press. pp. 49, 50, 65. ISBN 0-7914-1055-2.
  • ^ Wenzel, George W. (1991). Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. University of Toronto Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-8020-6890-1.
  • ^ Hunter, Robert (1979). Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 439, 441. ISBN 0-03-043741-5.
  • ^ Olmsted, Kathryn S. (1996). Challenging the Secret Government: The Post-Watergate Investigations of the CIA and FBI. UNC Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-8078-4562-0.
  • ^ Johns Hopkins University. School of Advanced International Studies (1989). SAIS Review. Original from the University of California. p. 112.
  • ^ Ellis, W. Philip; Barry M. Blechman (1992). The Politics of National Security: Congress and U.S. Defense Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-19-507705-9.
  • ^ Knott, Stephen F. Secret and Sanctioned: covert operations and the American presidency. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-19-510098-0.
  • ^ Rozell, Mark J. (1994). Executive Privilege: The Dilemma of Secrecy and Democratic Accountability. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8018-4900-4.
  • ^ Hearst, Patricia C.; Alvin Moscow (1980). Every Secret Thing. Doubleday Publishing. pp. 440, 441. ISBN 0-385-17056-4.
  • ^ a b c Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, pp. 299–300, 457
  • ^ a b Hall, John R. (1987). Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-124-3. p. 227
  • ^ Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 458
  • ^ McConnell, Malcolm (1984). Stepping Over: personal encounters with young extremists. Reader’s Digest Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-88349-166-4.
  • ^ Dawson, Lorne L. (2003). Cults and New Religious Movements: A Reader. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 186, 200, 205. ISBN 1-4051-0181-4.
  • ^ Rebecca Moore, American as Cherry Pie, 2000, Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University
  • ^ a b c Chidester, David (2003). Salvation and Suicide: Jim Jones, the Peoples Temple, and Jonestown. Indiana University Press. xvii, 11, 139, 151, 167, 168, 186. ISBN 0-253-21632-X.
  • ^ Quayle, Dan (1995). Standing Firm: A Vice-Presidential Memoir. Harpercollins. p. 176. ISBN 0-06-109390-4.
  • ^ a b c d e Zane, Maitland (November 13, 1998). “Surviving the Heart of Darkness: Twenty years later, Jackie Speier remembers how her companions and rum helped her endure the night of the Jonestown massacre”. San Francisco Chronicle. p. 1.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h United States House of Representatives; Foreign Affairs Committee (May 15, 1979). Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee report on Ryan’s assassination. Report of a Staff Investigative Group to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. United States Congress.
  • ^ a b Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 481
  • ^ Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 482
  • ^ Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, pp. 482–84
  • ^ Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 484
  • ^ Milhorn, H. Thomas (2004). Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers. p. 392. ISBN 1-58112-489-9.
  • ^ Singer, Ph.D., Margaret Thaler; Janja Lalich (1995). Cults in Our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives. Jossey Bass. pp. 28, 237.
  • ^ Snow, Robert L. (2003). Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers. Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 36, 38, 166, 168. ISBN 0-275-98052-9.
  • ^ Bernstein-Wax, Jessica, “Jonestown still reverberates in Bay Area 30 years later”, San Jose Mercury News, November 16, 2008
  • ^ Associated Press (December 2, 1986). “Ex-Cult Member Convicted In Death of Rep. Leo Ryan : ’78 Shooting Led to Jonestown Mass Suicide”. The Washington Post. p. A5.
  • ^ Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 520
  • ^ Drew, Bettina (February 1, 1999). “Indiana Jones’s Temple of Doom”. The Nation.
  • ^ Associated Press (December 2, 1986). “LAYTON CONVICTED FOR ROLE IN 1978 JONESTOWN KILLING”. Boston Globe.
  • ^ Staff (December 2, 1986). “LAYTON GUILTY IN GUYANA SHOOTINGS”. Sacramento Bee. p. A1.
  • ^ Bassiouni, M. Cherif (1998). Legal Responses to International Terrorism: U.S. procedural aspects. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 169, 170. ISBN 0-89838-931-3.
  • ^ a b United States of America v. Laurence John LAYTON, 666 F.Supp. 1369, No. CR-80-416 RFP. U.S. (United States District Court, N.D. California. June 3, 1987).
  • ^ Larry Layton released
  • ^ Joint Committee On Printing; United States Government Printing (1979). Leo J. Ryan – Memorial Services – Held In The House Of Representatives & Senate Of The U.S., Together With Remarks. Washington, D.C.: United States Congress. p. 89.
  • ^ Sudol, Karen (November 24, 2004). “Keeping her brother’s memory alive : Rep. Ryan’s sister won’t let people forget him or Jonestown”. Asbury Park Press. Ryan is the only member of Congress to have been killed in the line of duty and was posthumously recognized in the 1980s with a congressional award presented by then-President Ronald Reagan.
  • ^ a b “Statement on Signing the Bill Authorizing a Congressional Gold Medal Honoring the Late Representative Leo J. Ryan” (Press release). Ronald Reagan. November 18, 1983. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  • ^ Trescott, Jacqueline (November 30, 1984). “Leo Ryan honored (with Medal of Honor)”. The Washington Post. p. v107 pC4 col 5 (10 col in).
  • ^ Herald Staff (July 11, 1983). “PEOPLE UPDATE: PAT AND ERIN RYAN”. The Miami Herald. p. 2A.
  • ^ The Washington Post, November 30, 1984 v107 pC4 col 5 (10 col in), “Leo Ryan honored. (with Medal of Honor)” Jacqueline Trescott.
  • ^ SFGATE: Voters send Jackie Speier to Washington
  • ^ Endicott, William (January 12, 1981). “Leo Ryan’s Daughter Joins Cult : Shannon Jo Ryan Follows Religious Guru”. The Washington Post. p. C1.
  • ^ Staff. (December 22, 1982). “Leo Ryan’s Daughter Weds Guru Disciple”. The Washington Post. p. D12.
  • ^ Associated Press (November 20, 1984). “Dad ‘would understand’ why she lives with cult group”. The Chronicle-Telegram, Elyria, Ohio. p. A6.
  • ^ a b Dearen, Jason (November 18, 2003). “Erin Ryan wants father to be appreciated”. Oakland Tribune.
  • ^ Tuman, Myron C. (2002). A Guide to Deep Thinking in a Shallow Age. Xlibris Corporation. p. 82. ISBN 1-4010-5229-0.
  • ^ a b Bay City News Report (November 18, 2003). “Tribute to congressman Leo Ryan held in Foster City”. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  • ^ Delevett, Peter (November 15, 2003). “Two children remember fathers’ legacies 25 years after Jonestown”. San Jose Mercury News.
  • ^ “H.R. 6982: To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 210 South…” Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  • ^ The White House. “President Bush Signs H.R. 3511, H.R. 4010, H.R. 4131, H.R. 6558, H.R. 6681, H.R. 6834, H.R. 6847, H.R. 6902, and H.R. 6982 Into Law”. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  • ^ Congresswoman Jackie Speier. “Leo J. Ryan Post Office Dedication”. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
  • ^ René Cardona Jr. (1979). Guyana: Crime of the Century (Film). Universal Pictures.
  • ^ William A. Graham (1980). Guyana Tragedy: The Story of Jim Jones (Film). CBS Television.
  • ^ Stanley Nelson (October 20, 2006). Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple (Documentary). Firelight Media.
  • ^ The History Channel (2006). Decoding the Past: Cults: Dangerous Devotion: Scholars and survivors discuss the mystery of cults (Documentary). A&E Television Networks.
  • ^ The History Channel (2006). Jonestown Paradise Lost: Congressman Leo Ryan’s fatal journey into “Jonestown,” a community carved out of the jungles of Guyana by followers of pastor Jim Jones (Documentary). A&E Television Networks.
  • ^ MSNBC (2008). Witness to Jonestown (Documentary). NBC.
  • References[edit]

    • Ryan, Leo J. (1966). “Understanding California Government and Politics”. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishers.
    • Hall, John R. (1987). Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-124-3.
    • Reiterman, Tim; Jacobs, John (1982). Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-24136-1.

    Further reading[edit]

    • Biography, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
    • Congressional Gold Medal, Text of the act issuing the Congressional Gold Medal and an FBI report summary as well as an article on both Jones and his involvement and the investigation
    • On the 25th anniversary of the Jonestown Massacre and Ryan’s assassination at the Wayback Machine (archived June 27, 2007), 2003, Press release from Rep. Tom Lantos, California 12th Congressional District

    External links[edit]

    Leo Ryanat Wikipedia’s sister projects

    • Media from Wikimedia Commons
    • Quotations from Wikiquote
    • Texts from Wikisource
    • JoinCalifornia, Election History for the State of California
    • Congressman Leo J Ryan Memorial Page, hosted by Arnaldo Lerma
    • Leo J Ryan Memorial park in Foster City, California
    • Leo Ryan at Find a Grave


    • Journey to Nowhere: A New World Tragedy (1980)
    • Raven (1982)
    • Seductive Poison (1999)
    • A Thousand Lives (2011)

    Films and televisionRelated articles

    • Cult Awareness Network
    • Drinking the Kool-Aid
    • The Mary Pearl Willis Foundation
    • Evergreen Cemetery

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