Jeffrey Epstein

American financier and sex offender

Jeffrey Edward Epstein (born January 20, 1953) is an American financier and registered sex offender, who was arrested in July 2019 for child sex trafficking.[1] Epstein began his career at the investment bank Bear Stearns, before forming his own firm, J. Epstein & Co. He lives in the United States Virgin Islands.

In 2008, Epstein was convicted of soliciting an underage girl for prostitution, for which he served 13 months in “custody with work release”, which meant he was allowed to spend 16 hours a day outside of prison.[2] Epstein was arrested again on July 6, 2019, on federal charges for sex trafficking of minors in Florida and New York.[3][4]


  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Career
  • 3 Criminal proceedings
    • 3.1 Initial developments (2005–06)
    • 3.2 Conviction and sentencing (2008–11)
    • 3.3 Reactions
    • 3.4 Lawsuits
    • 3.5 Other civil lawsuits
    • 3.6 Appeals in 2019
    • 3.7 Trafficking charges
  • 4 Personal life
    • 4.1 Residences
    • 4.2 Science philanthropy
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

Early life

Epstein was born in 1953 in Brooklyn, New York and grew up in Coney Island, New York. Epstein’s father worked for the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. After graduating from Lafayette High School in 1969,[5][6] he attended classes at Cooper Union and dropped out in 1971.[7] He later attended the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University, but left without receiving a degree.[6]


Epstein taught calculus and physics at the Dalton School in Manhattan from 1973 to 1975.[6] In 1976, Epstein started work as an options trader at Bear Stearns,[6] where he worked in the special products division, advising high-net-worth clients on tax strategies.[6] Proving successful in his financial career, Epstein became a limited partner at Bear Stearns in 1980.[6][5]

In 1982, Epstein founded his own financial management firm, J. Epstein & Co., managing the assets of clients with more than US$1 billion in net worth. In 1996, Epstein changed the name of his firm to the Financial Trust Company and, for tax advantages, based it on the island of St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands.[6]

In 2003, Epstein bid to acquire New York magazine. Other bidders were advertising executive Donny Deutsch, investor Nelson Peltz, media mogul and New York Daily News publisher Mortimer Zuckerman, and (then) film producer Harvey Weinstein. They were ultimately outbid by Bruce Wasserstein, a longtime Wall Street investment banker, who paid $55 million.[8] In 2004, Epstein and Zuckerman committed up to $25 million to finance Radar, a celebrity and pop culture magazine founded by Maer Roshan. Epstein and Zuckerman were equal partners in the venture. Roshan, as its editor-in-chief, retained a small ownership stake.[9]

Criminal proceedings

Initial developments (2005–06)

In March 2005, a woman contacted Florida’s Palm Beach Police Department and alleged that her 14-year-old stepdaughter had been taken to Epstein’s mansion by an older girl. There she was allegedly paid $300 to strip and massage Epstein.[10] She had allegedly undressed, but left the encounter wearing her underwear.[11]
Police began an 11-month undercover investigation of Epstein, followed by a search of his home. The Federal Bureau of Investigation also became involved in the investigation; subsequently, the police alleged that Epstein had paid several escorts to perform sexual acts on him.[12] Interviews with five alleged victims and 17 witnesses under oath, a high school transcript and other items found in Epstein’s trash and home allegedly showed that some of the girls involved were under 18.[13] The police search of Epstein’s home found large numbers of photos of girls throughout the house, some of whom the police had interviewed in the course of their investigation.[11]

The International Business Times reported that papers filed in a 2006 lawsuit alleged that Epstein installed concealed cameras in numerous places on his property to record sexual activity with underage girls by prominent people for criminal purposes, such as blackmail.[14] Epstein allegedly “lent” girls to powerful people to ingratiate himself with them and also to gain possible blackmail information.[12] In 2015, evidence came to light that one of the powerful men at Epstein’s mansion may have been Prince Andrew, Duke of York.[12] A former employee told the police that Epstein would receive massages three times a day.[11] Eventually the FBI received accounts from 36 girls whose allegations of molestation by Epstein included overlapping details.[12]

The investigation resulted in a 53-page federal indictment. Alexander Acosta, then the United States Attorney for the Southern District of Florida, agreed to a plea deal to grant immunity from all federal criminal charges to Epstein, along with four co-conspirators and any unnamed “potential co-conspirators”. The deal halted the investigation and sealed the indictment. Epstein agreed to plead guilty to state prostitution charges, register as a sex offender, and pay restitution to three dozen victims identified by the FBI.[15] The Guardian, a British newspaper, reported, “Despite this, the US government eventually agreed to allow Epstein to plead guilty to just one count of soliciting prostitution from an underage girl under Florida state law. … Epstein agreed not to contest civil claims brought by the 40 women identified by the FBI, but escaped a prosecution that could have seen him jailed for the rest of his life.”[12]

In May 2006, Palm Beach police filed a probable cause affidavit saying that Epstein should be charged with four counts of unlawful sex with minors and one molestation count.[11][16]

Epstein’s team of defense lawyers included Gerald Lefcourt, Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz, and in 2007, Ken Starr.[10][17]

After the federal government agreed to charging Epstein on one count under state law, the prosecution convened a grand jury. Palm Beach Police Chief Michael Reiter later wrote to State Attorney Barry Krischer to complain of the state’s “highly unusual” conduct and asked Kirchner to remove himself from the case.[10] The grand jury returned a single charge of felony solicitation of prostitution,[18] to which Epstein pleaded not guilty in August 2006.[19]

Conviction and sentencing (2008–11)

In June 2008, after Epstein pleaded guilty to a single state charge of soliciting prostitution from girls as young as 14,[20] he was sentenced to 18 months in prison. Instead of being sent to state prison as are the majority of sex offenders convicted in Florida, Epstein was housed in a private wing of the Palm Beach County Jail. He was able to hire his own security detail and was allowed “work release” to his downtown office for up to 12 hours a day six days a week.[21] He served 13 months before being released for a year of probation. While on probation he was allowed numerous trips on his corporate jet to his homes in Manhattan and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[22]

At release, he was registered in New York State as a level three (high risk of reoffense) sex offender, a lifelong designation.[23][24] Epstein has been a registered sex offender since 2008.[1]


The immunity agreement and his lenient treatment were the subject of ongoing controversy. The Palm Beach police chief accused the state of giving him preferential treatment,[10] and the Miami Herald said U.S. Attorney Acosta gave Epstein “the deal of a lifetime.”[15]

After the accusations became public, several persons and institutions returned donations that they had received from Epstein, including Eliot Spitzer, Bill Richardson,[25] and the Palm Beach Police Department.[13] Harvard University announced it would not return any money.[25] Various charitable donations that Epstein had made to finance children’s education were also questioned.[20]

On June 18, 2010, Epstein’s former house manager, Alfredo Rodriguez, was sentenced to 18 months’ incarceration after being convicted on an obstruction charge for failing to turn over to police, and subsequently trying to sell, a journal in which he had recorded Epstein’s activities. FBI Special Agent Christina Pryor reviewed the material and agreed it was information “that would have been extremely useful in investigating and prosecuting the case, including names and contact information of material witnesses and additional victims.”[26][27]


The case was scheduled to be examined in court in December 2018 as part of a state civil lawsuit by attorney Bradley Edwards against Epstein. The trial was expected to provide victims with their first opportunity to make their accusations publicly. However, the case was settled on the first day of the trial, with Epstein apologizing to Edwards; other terms of the settlement were confidential.[28]

An additional long-running lawsuit is pending in federal court, aimed at vacating the federal plea agreement on the grounds that it violated victims’ rights.[28] On April 7, 2015, Judge Kenneth Marra ruled that the allegations made by alleged victim Virginia Roberts against Prince Andrew had no bearing on the lawsuit by alleged victims seeking to reopen Epstein’s non-prosecution plea agreement with the federal government; the judge ordered that allegation to be struck from the record.[29] Judge Marra made no ruling as to whether claims by Roberts are true or false. There was an effort to add Roberts and another woman as plaintiffs to that case.[30] Marra specifically said that Roberts may later give evidence when the case comes to court.[31]

Other civil lawsuits

On February 6, 2008, an anonymous Virginia woman filed a $50 million civil lawsuit[32] in federal court against Epstein, alleging that when she was a 16-year-old minor in 2004–2005, she was “recruited to give Epstein a massage.” She claims she was taken to his mansion, where he exposed himself and had sexual intercourse with her, and paid her $200 immediately afterward.[18] A similar $50 million suit was filed in March 2008 by a different woman, who was represented by the same lawyer.[33] These and several similar lawsuits were dismissed.[34]
All other lawsuits have been settled by Epstein out of court.[35] Epstein has made many out-of-court settlements with alleged victims and, as of January 2015, some cases remain open.[34]

A December 30, 2014 federal civil suit was filed in Florida against the United States for violations of the Crime Victims’ Rights Act by the Department of Justice’s agreement to Epstein’s limited 2008 plea; the suit also accuses Alan Dershowitz of sexually abusing a minor provided by Epstein.[36] (See Two Jane Does v. United States.) The allegations against Dershowitz were stricken by the judge and eliminated from the case because he said they were outside the intent of the suit to re-open the plea agreement.[29][37] A document filed in court alleges that Epstein ran a “sexual abuse ring”, and lent underage girls to “prominent American politicians, powerful business executives, foreign presidents, a well-known prime minister, and other world leaders.”[38]

A federal lawsuit filed in California in April 2016 against Epstein and Donald Trump by a California woman alleged that the men sexually assaulted her at a series of parties at Epstein’s Manhattan home in 1994, when she was 13 years old. The suit was dismissed by a federal judge in May 2016 because it did not raise valid claims under federal law. The woman filed another federal suit in New York in June 2016, but it was withdrawn three months later, apparently without being served on the defendants. A third federal suit was filed in New York in September 2016. The two latter suits included affidavits by an anonymous witness who attested to the accusations in the suits, and an anonymous person who declared the plaintiff had told him/her about the assaults at the time they occurred. The plaintiff, who had filed anonymously as Jane Doe, was scheduled to appear in a Los Angeles press conference six days before the 2016 election, but abruptly canceled the event; her lawyer Lisa Bloom asserted that the woman had received threats. The suit was dropped on November 4, 2016. Trump attorney Alan Garten flatly denied the allegations, while Epstein declined to comment.[39][40][41][42][43]

In January 2015, a 31-year-old American woman, Virginia Roberts (now Virginia Giuffre),[44] alleged in a sworn affidavit that at the age of 17, she had been held as a sex slave by Epstein. She further alleged that he had trafficked her to several people, including Prince Andrew and Harvard Law professor Alan Dershowitz. Roberts also claimed that Epstein and others had physically and sexually abused her.[45]
Roberts alleged that the FBI may have been involved in a cover-up.[46] She said she had served as Epstein’s sex slave from 1999 to 2002 and had recruited other under-age girls.[47] Prince Andrew, Epstein, and Dershowitz all denied having had sex with Roberts. Dershowitz took legal action over the allegations.[48][49][50] A diary purported to belong to Roberts was published online.[51][52] Epstein entered an out-of-court settlement with Roberts, as he has done in several other lawsuits.[12]
The BBC television series Panorama planned an investigation of the scandal.[53] As of 2016, these claims had not been tested in any court of law.[54]

Appeals in 2019

On February 21, 2019, Senior Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida Kenneth Marra said federal prosecutors violated the law by failing to notify victims before they allowed him to plead guilty to only the Florida offense. The judge left open what the possible remedy could be.[55]

On March 11, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit gave parties one week to provide good cause as to why the summary judgement and case documents should remain under seal, without which they would be unsealed on March 19, 2019.[56][57]

Trafficking charges

US v. Jeffrey Epstein indictment[58]

On July 6, 2019, Epstein was arrested at Teterboro Airport in New Jersey on sex trafficking charges. According to witnesses and sources, about a dozen FBI agents broke down the door to Epstein’s Manhattan townhouse, the Herbert N. Straus House, with search warrants.[59][60] Two days later, prosecutors with the Public Corruption Unit of the Southern District of New York charged him with sex trafficking and conspiracy to traffic minors for sex. Court documents allege that at least 40 underage girls were brought into Epstein’s mansion for sexual encounters.[3][4][61] Judge Kenneth Marra is currently deciding whether the non-prosecution agreement that protected Epstein from the more serious charges should still stand.[62]

Epstein owned a private Boeing 727 jet and traveled in it frequently, logging “600 flying hours a year (…) usually with guests on board.”[63] Epstein’s plane has been nicknamed the “Lolita Express” by media due to his conviction and the accusations of sexual involvement with underage girls made against him.[6][64][65][66]

Personal life

Previous longterm girlfriends associated with Epstein include publishing heir Ghislaine Maxwell.[5] Maxwell was implicated by several of Epstein’s accusers as serving as a ‘madam’ to recruit underage girls in addition to once being Epstein’s girlfriend.[67]

Epstein was a longtime acquaintance of Prince Andrew and Tom Barrack,[68] and has attended parties with many prominent people, including Bill Clinton, George Stephanopoulos, Donald Trump,[69] Katie Couric, and Woody Allen.[70] In September 2002, Epstein flew Bill Clinton, Kevin Spacey, and Chris Tucker to Africa in his private jet. Flight records show Clinton flew on Epstein’s plane 26 times.[6][64][71][72] On July 9, 2019, Clinton spokesman, Angel Ureña, confirmed that, in 2002 and 2003, the former president Bill Clinton “took four trips on Epstein’s plane with multiple stops and that staff and his Secret Service detail traveled on every leg.”[73]

In a profile of Epstein in New York magazine in 2002, former Democratic Senate leader George J. Mitchell said of Epstein, “I would certainly call him a friend and a supporter.” In the same article, Donald Trump remarked, “I’ve known Jeff for fifteen years. Terrific guy. He’s a lot of fun to be with. It is even said that he likes beautiful women as much as I do, and many of them are on the younger side. No doubt about it – Jeffrey enjoys his social life.” Bill Clinton lauded Epstein as “a committed philanthropist” with “insights and generosity.” At the time Epstein was on the board of the Rockefeller Foundation, a member of the Trilateral Commission and the Council on Foreign Relations, and was a major donor to Harvard University.[74]

Although Donald Trump initially was subpoenaed to give a deposition in 2008-2009 by attorney Brad Edwards the subpoena was withdrawn as Trump voluntarily helped. Edwards said Trump was “open and forthright”.[75] Edwards represented several accusers of Epstein, asserting in court documents that Epstein was barred from Trump’s residence at Mar-a-Lago after he sexually harassed an underage girl in 1999,[76] but later conceded he was unable to confirm that. Neither Trump nor Mar-a-Lago have confirmed the account. Author James Patterson recounted the alleged episode in his 2016 book Filthy Rich.[77][78][79][76]


Epstein owns the Herbert N. Straus House on East 71st Street in the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City. It is reputedly the largest private residence in Manhattan at 21,000-square-foot (2,000-square-meter)[80][12] The financier’s other properties include a villa in Palm Beach, Florida; an apartment in Paris; a 10,000-acre (40 km2) ranch with a hilltop mansion in Stanley, New Mexico;[81][10] and a private island near Saint Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands called Little Saint James, which includes a mansion and guest houses.

Science philanthropy

In 2000, Epstein established the Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation, which funds science research and education. Prior to 2003, the foundation funded Martin Nowak’s research at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In May 2003, Epstein established the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics at Harvard University with a $30 million gift.[82]

The extent of Epstein’s claimed philanthropy is unknown. This foundation fails to disclose information which other charities routinely disclose. Concerns have been raised over this lack of transparency, and in 2015 the Attorney General of New York was reported to be trying to get information.[83]

See also

  • Biography portal
  • Criminal justice portal
  • Sexuality portal
  • Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation
  • Little Saint James


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  • ^ Thomas, Landon Jr. (October 28, 2002). “Jeffrey Epstein: International Moneyman of Mystery”. New York. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  • ^ “Epstein Sex Slave Lawyer: Donald Trump ‘No Way Involved In Any Untoward Activity’ | Radar Online”. April 28, 2016.
  • ^ a b Patterson, James; Connolly, John (October 10, 2016). Filthy Rich: A Powerful Billionaire, the Sex Scandal that Undid Him, and All the Justice that Money Can Buy: The Shocking True Story of Jeffrey Epstein. ISBN 9780316362450.
  • ^ Miles, Frank (July 7, 2019). “Jeffrey Epstein’s alleged sex trafficking involved locations in NY, Virgin Islands, Florida, NM ranch: attorney”. Fox News.
  • ^ Saunders, Debra J. (July 9, 2019). “Trump backs Labor secretary as Democrats demand resignation”. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  • ^ Raymond, Chas Danner, Matt Stieb, Adam K. (July 8, 2019). “Everything We Know About the Sex Crimes Case Against Jeffrey Epstein”. Intelligencer.
  • ^ Matthew Haag (July 8, 2019). “$56 Million Upper East Side Mansion Where Epstein Allegedly Abused Girls”. New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  • ^ Jennings, Trip (August 16, 2006). “Gov. to Give Away $50,000 Campaign Gift”. Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  • ^ Scharnick, Jacquelyn M. (June 5, 2003). “People in the News: Jeffrey E. Epstein”. The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
  • ^ “Exclusive: New York attorney general seeks information on financier Epstein’s philanthropy”. Reuters. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015.
  • Further reading

    .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}personal

    • Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). “How a future Trump Cabinet member gave a serial sex abuser the deal of a lifetime”. Miami Herald.
    • Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). “Cops worked to put serial sex abuser in prison. Prosecutors worked to cut him a break”. Miami Herald.
    • Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). “Even from jail, sex abuser manipulated the system. His victims were kept in the dark”. Miami Herald.
    • Brown, Julie K.; Albright, Aaron (November 28, 2018). “He was over 50. They were little girls. Their stories were almost identical. The evidence was substantial”. Miami Herald.
    • Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). “For years, Jeffrey Epstein abused teen girls, police say. A timeline of his case”. Miami Herald.
    • Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). “How the Miami Herald investigated Jeffrey Epstein—and his many enablers”. Miami Herald.
    • Edelman, Susan; Vincent, Isabel (December 1, 2018). “Manhattan DA sided with pedophile billionaire after botching investigation”. New York Post.
    • Coaston, Jane; North, Anna (December 4, 2018). “Jeffrey Epstein, the convicted sex offender who is friends with Donald Trump and Bill Clinton, explained”. Vox.

    External links

    Jeffrey Epsteinat Wikipedia’s sister projects

    • Media from Wikimedia Commons
    • Quotations from Wikiquote
    • Data from Wikidata
    • Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation (discontinued; archived in 2014)
    • Collected news and commentary at The New York Times
    • Collected news at the New York Daily News
    • FBI records

    Diversion Investigator

    Diversion Investigator (DI) is the title of a specialist position within the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the United States Department of Justice. Most DIs are part of DEA’s Diversion Control Program and are assigned to various DEA field offices throughout the U.S. and in several foreign countries. DIs are responsible for addressing the problem of diversion of controlled pharmaceuticals and regulated chemicals from the legitimate channels in which they are manufactured, distributed, and dispensed. The mission of a DI is to aid the U.S. pharmaceutical and chemical industries in complying with the Federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and other pertinent laws, as well as international treaties and conventions. DIs conduct investigations to uncover and investigate suspected sources of diversion and take appropriate criminal, civil and/or administrative actions.

    The DI position was originally known as a “Compliance Investigator” and was created to address the regulatory responsibilities of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) following the enactment of the CSA in 1970. Around 1983-84, the position had been given its current name. One key difference between the DI position and that of a DEA Special Agent is that DEA has never authorized DIs (or their Compliance Investigator predecessors) to carry firearms or to perform traditional law enforcement activities such as making arrests or controlling informants. DEA Special Agents, on the other hand, are fully commissioned Federal law enforcement officers. From 1971 to 1995, DIs were classified as series 1810 (general investigator) within the U.S. civil service system. In other Federal agencies, series 1810 investigators performed administrative investigative functions such as background investigations for security clearances (Office of Personnel Management and the Defense Security Service) or investigations of equal employment opportunity violations (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission). In 1995, DEA reclassified DIs to series 1801 (general inspection, investigation, enforcement, and compliance) to reflect the position’s mixture of criminal, civil, and administrative investigative duties.

    In order to accomplish their mission, DIs employ a wide range of investigative activities. One such activity is the scheduled regulatory investigation (or audit) of registered handlers of controlled substances. These investigations serve to deter diversion through evaluation of the registrants’ record-keeping procedures, security safeguards and general compliance with the CSA and implementing regulations. Legitimate handlers of controlled substances subject to regulatory investigation include drug manufacturers, distributors (wholesalers), importers and exporters, and narcotic treatment programs, which are those programs primarily designed to furnish methadone to narcotic addicts as part of a program of addiction treatment.

    Most recently, there has been a growing push to investigate diversion of controlled substances involving sale and distribution via the Internet. The rapidly changing environment and an increase in Internet diversion of controlled substances has created a need for programs to target these sources of diversion.

    Frequently, DIs are involved in investigations aimed at the most serious practitioner-level registrant violators (e.g., medical practitioners, pharmacies, etc.) of controlled substances laws and regulations. These registrants have a documented or suspected history of diversion of drugs/chemicals into the illicit market. DIs collect and analyze information developed during their investigations and consult with supervisory personnel to determine if criminal prosecution is warranted. DIs work closely with DEA Special Agents and state and local law enforcement officers who provide assistance in making undercover purchases and executing search warrants. DIs also work closely with attorneys for DEA, the United States Attorneys Office and state and local prosecutors. DIs are required to testify as to the results of their investigations during criminal trials, grand jury proceedings and administrative hearings.

    A key function of the DI position involves maintaining liaison with all levels of the U.S. drug and chemical registrant population, including the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. DIs will often answer questions registrants have concerning their responsibilities under the CSA. Many DIs also become involved in their field office’s demand reduction and community out-reach programs.

    Foreign-based DIs are experts in legal and regulatory matters pertaining to narcotics, psychotropic substances, and regulated chemicals. They serve as advisers/consultants to foreign host governments in establishing anti-diversion programs.


    Shaft (2019 film).

    2019 film directed by Tim Story

    Shaft is a 2019 American action comedy film directed by Tim Story and written by Kenya Barris and Alex Barnow. The film stars Samuel L. Jackson, Jessie Usher, and Richard Roundtree. It is the fifth film in the Shaft film series and a sequel to the 2000 film with the same title. Unlike its predecessor, which was distributed by Paramount Pictures, this film is produced by New Line Cinema and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, who owns the first three features and the TV series due to its acquisition of the pre-1986 MGM library when it absorbed Turner Entertainment through the Time Warner formation in 1996.

    The film was released theatrically in the United States on June 14, 2019 by Warner Bros. Pictures, and will be released in international markets on June 28, 2019 by Netflix. It received mixed reviews from critics, but positive responses from audiences, and has grossed $16 million.


    • 1 Plot
    • 2 Cast
    • 3 Production
    • 4 Release
    • 5 Reception
      • 5.1 Box office
      • 5.2 Critical response
    • 6 References
      • 6.1 Notes
      • 6.2 Footnotes
    • 7 External links


    In 1989, John Shaft II (Samuel L. Jackson), his wife Maya Babanikos (Regina Hall), and his infant son John “JJ” Shaft Jr. survive an assassination attempt by drug lord Pierro “Gordito” Carrera (Isaach de Bankolé). Concerned that Shaft II’s lifestyle will put them in danger, Maya leaves him and raises JJ on her own. 25 years later, JJ (Jessie Usher) is an FBI agent[5] and a cybersecurity expert with a degree from MIT.[6] After his childhood friend Karim (Avan Jogia) dies of a heroin overdose, JJ concludes he must have been murdered. JJ travels to Harlem to investigate Manuel, the drug dealer who runs the neighborhood and sold the heroin that allegedly killed Karim, but is violently ejected from his property. While recovering in the hospital, JJ’s other childhood friend and crush Sasha (Alexandra Shipp) reads Karim’s toxicology report and realizes that the amount of heroin in Karim’s system would have killed him long before he could take that much by himself, proving he was murdered. With no other recourse, JJ turns to Shaft II for aid. Shaft II agrees to help after realizing that JJ’s case may lead him to Gordito. The two begin investigating together, but JJ’s progressive white collar outlook on life clashes with Shaft II’s old-school street ways. After confronting Manuel again, the Shafts investigate “Brothers Watching Brothers”, the drug rehab clinic Karim was a part of. There they learn that Karim stopped going to rehab in favor of attending services at a mosque currently under suspicion by the FBI for terrorism.

    The next day, Sasha accompanies JJ and Shaft II to investigate the mosque, where they are ejected from the premises after the imam notices JJ’s FBI badge. Shaft II convinces JJ and Sasha to have a romantic dinner together, and the Shafts next investigate a convenience store owned by a woman named Bennie Rodriguez (Lauren Vélez) who donated $500,000 to the mosque. Maya calls JJ to inform him that she is coming to New York to meet a man for a date; she is overheard and followed by Shaft II. The Shafts survive two separate assassination attempts orchestrated by Bennie, and Maya forces Shaft II to kick JJ out of the investigation for his own safety.

    JJ turns over the evidence they have gathered to the FBI, who arrest the mosque’s imam. However, the media accuses the FBI of Islamaphobia, and JJ’s boss Vietti (Titus Welliver) fires him. JJ returns to Shaft II and overhears a conversation about Gordito, leading him to believe that his father was stringing him along the entire time. While Shaft II visits and reconciles with Maya, JJ and Sasha track down Bennie to an abandoned warehouse and learn that “Brothers Watching Brothers” is a front for a drug smuggling ring; Karim was killed when he threatened to blow the whistle on their operation. JJ is caught by the smugglers; Sasha is captured while JJ is rescued by Shaft II. The two visit JJ’s grandfather, John Shaft Sr. (Richard Roundtree), to acquire more firepower, and Shaft Sr. decides to accompany them in an assault on Gordito’s penthouse. The Shafts kill the drug smugglers and rescue Sasha before being confronted at gunpoint by Gordito. Gordito attempts to shoot JJ to spite Shaft II, but Shaft II takes the bullet and knocks Gordito out of a window to his death before collapsing. In the aftermath, Shaft II recovers at the hospital. Vietti offers JJ his job back, but JJ turns it down in favor of joining his father and grandfather in their PI business.


    • Samuel L. Jackson as John Shaft II, a private investigator, father of JJ and son[a] of Shaft Sr.
    • Jessie Usher as John “JJ” Shaft III, an FBI agent, son of Shaft Jr. and grandson of Shaft Sr.
    • Richard Roundtree as John Shaft, the legendary retired private investigator, father[b] of Shaft and grandfather of JJ.
    • Alexandra Shipp as Sasha Arias, JJ’s childhood friend and crush.
    • Regina Hall as Maya Babanikos, Shaft II’s ex-wife and JJ’s mother
    • Matt Lauria as Major Gary Cutworth
    • Titus Welliver as Special Agent Vietti
    • Method Man as Freddie P
    • Isaach de Bankolé as Pierro ‘Gordito’ Carrera
    • Avan Jogia as Karim Hassan, JJ’s childhood friend who is a recovering addict.
    • Robbie Jones as Sergeant Keith Williams
    • Lauren Vélez as Bennie Rodriguez


    On February 18, 2015, it was announced that New Line Cinema had acquired the rights to Shaft, based on the famous detective character, John Shaft, and would develop a new film within the series along with producer John Davis of Davis Entertainment.[7] On July 28, 2015, it was reported that Kenya Barris and Alex Barnow would be writing the script for the new film, which would also be produced by Ira Napoliello.[8] On January 20, 2017, the studio hired Tim Story to direct the film.[9] On August 18, 2017, Jessie Usher was cast to play the lead role as the son of Samuel L. Jackson’s John Shaft II from the 2000 film, while Richard Roundtree and Jackson would reprise their roles from the previous films.[5]

    In October 2017, Netflix signed a deal with New Line Cinema to cover more than half of the film’s $30 million budget in exchange for the rights, which allowed Netflix to release the film on its platform outside of the United States two weeks after the theatrical release in the U.S.[10]

    Filming began in February 2018.[11] It was reported that the film already wrapped up production in the early part of the year but the cast went back to re-shoot some scenes in Atlanta in August 2018.[12]


    Shaft was theatrically released on June 14, 2019 in the United States, by Warner Bros.[13] Netflix, who paid $6–7 million for the rights to the film, will release it internationally on June 28, 2019.[10]


    Box office[edit]

    In the United States and Canada, Shaft was released alongside Men in Black: International, as well as the wide expansion of Late Night, and was initially projected to gross $17–20 million from 2,950 theaters in its opening weekend.[4][3] However after film made just $2.7 million on its first day ($600,000 from Thursday night previews), estimates were lowered to $7 million. It went on to debut to just $8.3 million, finishing sixth at the box office.[14] It made $3.6 million in its second weekend, dropping 60% to 11th.[15]

    Critical response[edit]

    On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 35% based on 79 reviews from critics, with an average rating of 4.89/10. The website’s critical consensus reads: “Decades removed from the original, this multi-generational Shaft struggles to keep its characters interesting — or anything other than uncomfortably outdated.”[16] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 40 out of 100, based on 30 critics, indicating “mixed or average reviews”.[17] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film a good grade of “A” on an A+ to F scale, while those at PostTrak gave the film an average 4 out of 5 stars and a 51% “definite recommend”.[14]

    Writing for The A.V. Club, Ignatiy Vishnevetsky gave the film a C, writing, “With its groaner jokes and TV-pilot production values, the new film makes the last attempt at updating the character to contemporary action-hero tastes (in 2000’s Shaft, directed by the late John Singleton) look downright old-school. And its identity crises go a lot deeper than the title it confusingly shares with two earlier films.”[18]



  • ^ The 2000 film presented him as Shaft Sr.’s nephew; this film retcons him into being his son.
  • ^ The 2000 film presented him as Shaft II’s uncle; this film retcons him into being his father.
  • Footnotes[edit]

  • ^ D’Alessandro, Anthony (November 29, 2017). “Warner Bros. Moves ‘Tag’ Up, Sets 2019 Release For ‘Shaft’ & ‘The Goldfinch'”. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 28, cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ a b “Shaft (2019)”. Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  • ^ a b Fuster, Jeremy (June 11, 2019). “Can ‘Men in Black: International’ Bring in Moviegoers Without Will Smith?”. TheWrap. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  • ^ a b D’Alessandro, Anthony; Tartaglione, Nancy (June 12, 2019). “Can ‘Men In Black: International’ Travel To $100M+ Worldwide Opening?”. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  • ^ a b Fleming Jr, Mike (August 18, 2017). “Jessie T. Usher Tapped As Son Of Shaft; Samuel L. Jackson, Richard Roundtree Reprise”. Deadline. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  • ^ Butler, Karen (January 20, 2018). “Samuel L. Jackson and Jessie T. Usher back to work on ‘Shaft'”. UPI. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  • ^ Sneider, Jeff (February 18, 2015). “‘Shaft’ Reboot in the Works at New Line With ‘Predator’ Producer (Exclusive)”. TheWrap. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  • ^ Kit, Borys (July 28, 2015). “‘Shaft’ Getting Remake from ‘Black-ish’ Creator (Exclusive)”. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  • ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (January 20, 2017). “Tim Story To Direct New Version Of ‘Shaft’ For New Line”. Deadline. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  • ^ a b Fleming Jr, Mike (October 2, 2017). “Netflix Makes ‘Shaft’ Reboot Deal That Could Change The Model For Urban-Themed Films”. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  • ^ Burwick, Kevin (February 2, 2018). “3 Generations of Shaft Unite as Son of Shaft Begins Shooting”. MovieWeb.
  • ^ “Casting Call! Shaft returns for re-shoots!”. WXIA. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  • ^ McNary, Dave (November 29, 2017). “‘Shaft’ Sequel and Ansel Elgort’s ‘Goldfinch’ Get 2019 Release Dates”. Variety. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  • ^ a b D’Alessandro, Anthony (June 16, 2019). “‘Men In Black: International’ Domestic Passport Revoked With $26M Opening, ‘Shaft’ Drops His Gun With $7M+: Summer Sequelitis, Here We Go Again”. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
  • ^ Anthony D’Alessandro (June 23, 2019). “‘Toy Story 4’ Eyeing 3rd Best Animated Pic Opening Of All-Time With $123M+, But Did Disney Leave Money On The Table?”. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  • ^ “Shaft (2019)”. Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  • ^ “Shaft Reviews”. Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  • ^ Vishnevetsky, Ignatiy (June 12, 2019). “We Can’t Dig This Shaft”. The A.V. Club. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  • External links[edit]

    • Shaft on IMDb

    Murder Mystery (film)

    Murder Mystery is a 2019 American comedy mystery film directed by Kyle Newacheck and written by James Vanderbilt. The film stars Adam Sandler, Jennifer Aniston, and Luke Evans, and follows a married couple who are caught up in a murder investigation on a billionaire’s yacht. It was released on June 14, 2019, by Netflix.[2]


    • 1 Plot
    • 2 Cast
    • 3 Production
    • 4 Release
    • 5 Reception
    • 6 References
    • 7 External links


    Nick Spitz (Adam Sandler) is a New York police officer, and his wife Audrey (Jennifer Aniston) is a hairdresser. Audrey wants to visit Europe, as Nick had promised at their wedding, but thinks they never will. After their 15th-anniversary dinner, Audrey confronts Nick, who lies that he has in fact booked the trip, and they set off to Europe. On the plane, Audrey meets billionaire Charles Cavendish, who invites the couple to join him on his family yacht for a party celebrating his elderly uncle’s upcoming wedding to Charles’ former fianceé. After seeing how crowded their previously planned bus tour would be, Nick agrees.

    Aboard the yacht, Nick and Audrey meet Cavendish’s ex-fiancée Suzi, his cousin Tobey, actress Grace Ballard, Colonel Ulenga, his bodyguard Sergei, the Maharaja Vikram of Mumbai, race car driver Juan Carlos Rivera, and their host Malcolm Quince, Cavendish’s uncle. Quince announces that his new wife Suzi will be the only one to receive his inheritance, believing the others only feign interest in him because of his money. Before he can sign his new will, the lights go out and come back on to reveal Quince dead, stabbed by his own dagger.

    Nick, who has lied to Audrey about being an NYPD detective, orders the room locked, and the guests return to their rooms. Later that night, the guests find Tobey, Quince’s only son, dead from an apparent suicide. Upon arriving in Monte Carlo, the guests are questioned by Inspector Laurent Delacroix, who believes Nick and Audrey guilty of the murders.

    At the Monaco Grand Prix, Nick and Audrey question the guests. That night, Sergei summons them to his room, where he reveals Quince had married the Colonel’s fianceé while the Colonel was in a coma, which ended with her death and a child who was allegedly stillborn. The couple hide when someone knocks on the door, and come out to find Sergei has been murdered. While fleeing, Audrey is furious to learn Nick is not actually a detective and lied about booking the trip in advance, and she leaves with Cavendish.

    Nick follows Suzi to a library where he finds Audrey, who reveals Cavendish is in the building as well. They realize Cavendish and Suzi are still in love and, presumably, the murderers. The couple are forced to flee from a hidden gunman and meet Rivera, and are confronted by Suzi, who is killed by the masked killer. Nick and Audrey go to Quince’s mansion to confront Cavendish, but find him dead by poisoning.

    The couple summon Delacroix and the remaining guests Ulenga, Grace, Vikram, and Rivera, who all have alibis. Nick and Audrey deduce that Grace is the murderer; she was helped by Tobey, then killed him. Grace reveals that she is Quince’s child that “died” and that his money truly belongs to her. Though Grace denies being the killer, Audrey proves her guilt and she is arrested.

    While celebrating, Nick and Audrey learn that Grace had another alibi and there must be another killer. They realize Rivera is the second murderer, who blamed Quince for an accident his father had where he had lost both of his legs. Rivera holds Delacroix hostage and leads Nick and Audrey in a car chase, but they force his car to crash and rescue Delacroix. Rivera holds them all at gunpoint, but is killed by the chaotic tour bus, which Nick and Audrey would have initially boarded earlier.

    Delacroix thanks the couple and offers to help get Nick promoted to detective back home. The movie ends with Nick and Audrey continuing their vacation aboard the fabled Orient Express courtesy of Interpol.


    • Adam Sandler as Nick Spitz, a New York City police officer and Audrey’s husband
    • Jennifer Aniston as Audrey Spitz, a hairdresser, murder mystery novel enthusiast and Nick’s wife
    • Luke Evans as Charles, Viscount Cavendish, an aristocrat
    • Gemma Arterton as Grace Ballard, an actress
    • Terence Stamp as Malcolm Quince, an elderly billionaire
    • David Walliams as Tobias Quince
    • Luis Gerardo Mendez as Juan Carlos Rivera
    • Dany Boon as Inspector Laurent Delacroix
    • Shiori Kutsuna as Suzi Nakamura
    • Adeel Akhtar as Maharajah Vikram Govindan
    • John Kani as Colonel Ulenga
    • Ólafur Darri Ólafsson as Sergei Radjenko
    • Erik Griffin as Jimmy
    • Sufe Bradshaw as Holly
    • Nicole Randall Johnson as Marisol
    • Molly McNearney as Lorraine
    • Andrea Bendewald as Client #2
    • Victor Turpin as Lorenzo
    • Hélène Cardona as Spanish Announcer
    • Massi Furlan as Italian Announcer
    • Jackie Sandler as Stewardess
    • Allen Covert as tour group father


    In June 2012, it was reported that Charlize Theron had signed on to star in Murder Mystery, a mystery-comedy then set to be directed by John Madden, from James Vanderbilt’s screenplay. Before the announcement, the project had been set up at Walt Disney Studios with Kevin McDonald set to direct.[3] In April 2013, it was reported that Colin Firth, Adam Sandler and Emily Blunt had joined the cast – although, representatives for Firth and Blunt denied that they were boarding the film.[4] In September 2013, it was reported that both Theron and Madden had left the project and that Anne Fletcher was now set to direct for TWC-Dimension; Theron eventually received an executive producer credit on the film.[5]

    In March 2018, it was announced that Sandler and Jennifer Aniston had signed to star, reuniting them after Just Go with It, their 2011 film. Kyle Newacheck directed, still with Vanderbilt’s script, and the film premiered on Netflix as part of Sandler’s distribution deal.[6] In June 2018, it was announced that Luke Evans, Gemma Arterton, David Walliams, Erik Griffin, John Kani, Shioli Kutsuna, Luis Gerardo Mendez, Adeel Akhtar, Ólafur Darri Ólafsson, Dany Boon and Terence Stamp had joined the cast.[7][8][9]

    Principal photography on the film began on June 14, 2018 in Montréal.[8][10] In late July 2018, filming began in Italy at locations including Santa Margherita Ligure, Lake Como,[11] and Milan (where most of the scenes set in Monaco were actually shot).[12]


    A trailer was released on April 26, 2019.[13] The film was digitally released worldwide on June 14, 2019.[14]


    On June 18, 2019, Netflix reported that 30.9 million households watched the film in the first 72 hours, the biggest opening weekend in the company’s history.[15]

    On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 45% based on 47 reviews, and an average rating of 4.67/10. The site’s critical consensus reads, “Murder Mystery reunites Jennifer Aniston and Adam Sandler for a lightweight comedy that’s content to settle for merely mediocre.”[16] Metacritic assigned the film a weighted average score of 38 out of 100, based on 17 critics, indicating “generally unfavorable reviews.”[17]


  • ^ “Rupert Gregson-Williams Scoring Netflix Movie ‘Murder Mystery'”. Film Music Reporter. May 8, 2019. Retrieved May 8, cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ “MURDER MYSTERY will launch globally on Netflix in June 2019”. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  • ^ Charlize Theron in Talks to Star in ‘Murder Mystery’ for ‘Marigold Hotel’ Director
  • ^ Cannes: Colin Firth, Adam Sandler, Emily Blunt to Join Charlize Theron in ‘Murder Mystery’?
  • ^ Anne Fletcher Directing ‘Murder Mystery’ for TWC-Dimension
  • ^ Kroll, Justin (March 29, 2018). “Adam Sandler, Jennifer Aniston Reunite for Netflix ‘Murder Mystery'”. Variety. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  • ^ Hipes, Patrick (June 7, 2018). “Luke Evans Is The Man In Netflix Comedy ‘Murder Mystery'”. Deadline. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  • ^ a b Kit, Borys (June 14, 2018). “Luis Gerardo Mendez Joins Adam Sandler, Jennifer Aniston in ‘Murder Mystery’ (Exclusive)”. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  • ^ Galuppo, Mia (June 25, 2018). “Terence Stamp, Gemma Arterton Join Netflix Comedy ‘Murder Mystery'”. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  • ^ “L’acteur britannique Luke Evans à Montréal | TVA Nouvelles” (in French). Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  • ^ Hemmert, Kylie (July 26, 2018). “Sandler and Aniston’s Netflix Movie Murder Mystery Begins Filming”. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  • ^
  • ^ Murder Mystery | Trailer | Netflix (Trailer). Netflix. April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  • ^ “Virtually every movie coming out this summer”. Los Angeles Times. April 25, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  • ^ “Netflix Reveals Record-Breaking Stats for Sandler-Aniston ‘Murder Mystery’ Flick”. Variety. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  • ^ “Murder Mystery (2019)”. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  • ^ “Murder Mystery reviews”. Metacritic. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  • External links[edit]

    • Murder Mystery on Netflix
    • Murder Mystery on IMDb

    Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections

    Major events prior to Trump’s inauguration related to interference by Russia in the U.S. 2016 election

    President of the United States


    • Transition
    • Inauguration
    • Timeline
    • Executive actions
      • proclamations
      • pardons
    • Trips
      • 2017
      • 2018
      • 2019
      • international
    • Summits
      • Riyadh
      • Singapore
      • Helsinki
      • Hanoi
    • Shutdowns
      • Jan 2018
      • 2018–2019
    • Polls
    • Protests
    • Efforts to impeach


    • Cabinet
      • formation
    • Ambassadors
    • Federal judges
      • Gorsuch
      • Kavanaugh
      • Supreme Court candidates
    • U.S. Attorneys
    • Dismissals
      • Comey


    • Economy
      • tax cuts
      • tariffs
      • China trade war
    • Environment
      • Paris withdrawal
    • Foreign policy
      • Iran deal
      • Jerusalem
      • Golan Heights
    • Immigration
      • family separation
      • national emergency
      • travel ban
      • wall
    • Social issues
      • cannabis
    • Space

    Presidential campaigns

    • 2000
      • primaries
    • 2016
      • election
      • primaries
      • endorsements
        • primary
      • rallies
      • convention
      • debates
      • Never Trump
        • people
      • sexual misconduct allegations
        • Access Hollywood tape
      • wiretapping allegations
        • Spygate
    • 2020
      • election
      • primaries
      • endorsements

    Controversies involving Russia

    • Business projects in Russia
    • Election interference
    • Associates’ links with Russian officials
    • Steele dossier
    • Trump Tower meeting
    • Classified information disclosure
    • Special Counsel investigation
      • Crossfire Hurricane
      • 2017
      • 2018
      • 2019
      • charges
      • Mueller Report
      • Barr letter

    Business and personal

    • Business career
      • The Trump Organization
      • The Apprentice
      • wealth
      • tax returns
    • Books
    • Eponyms
    • Family
    • Foundation
    • Golf
    • Health
    • Honors
    • Legal affairs
      • Stormy Daniels scandal
    • Nicknames
    • Racial views
    • Residences
    • Social media
    • Veracity of statements

    • v
    • t
    • e

    This is a timeline of major events related to election interference that Russia conducted against the U.S. 2016 elections. It also includes major events related to investigations into suspected inappropriate links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials.[1] Those investigations continued in 2017, 2018, and 2019. These events are related to, but distinct from, Russian interference in the 2018 United States elections.


    • 1 Relevant individuals and organizations
      • 1.1 A–E
      • 1.2 F–K
      • 1.3 L–Q
      • 1.4 R–Z
    • 2 Before Donald Trump’s candidacy
      • 2.1 1986
      • 2.2 1987
      • 2.3 1991
      • 2.4 1996
      • 2.5 2000
      • 2.6 2001–2004
      • 2.7 2004
      • 2.8 2005
      • 2.9 2006
      • 2.10 2007
      • 2.11 2008
      • 2.12 2010
      • 2.13 2011
      • 2.14 2012
      • 2.15 2013
      • 2.16 2014
      • 2.17 January–June 2015
    • 3 2016 presidential campaign
      • 3.1 June–December 2015
      • 3.2 January–March 2016
      • 3.3 April–May 2016
      • 3.4 June 2016
      • 3.5 July 2016
      • 3.6 August 2016
      • 3.7 September 2016
      • 3.8 October–November 2016
    • 4 Post-election transition
      • 4.1 November–December 2016
      • 4.2 January 2017
    • 5 Investigations’ continuing timelines
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 Further reading
    • 9 External links

    Relevant individuals and organizations[edit]

    This is a list of individuals and organizations that have been involved in the events related to either the election interference that Russia conducted against the 2016 U.S. elections and/or the resulting investigations into suspected inappropriate links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials. Seth Abramson estimated more than 400 people could be listed here.[2]:3


    • Aras Agalarov, Azerbaijani-Russian billionaire oligarch and President of the Crocus Group [ru], close to both Trump and Putin
    • Emin Agalarov, Russian pop singer, and son of Aras
    • Rinat Akhmetshin, Russian-American lobbyist who emigrated to the U.S. in 1993
    • Justin Amash, U.S. Representative for Michigan’s 3rd congressional district, first Republican to call for Donald Trump’s impeachment
    • Tevfik Arif, Soviet-born Turkish real estate developer and investor, founder of the Bayrock Group
    • Andrii Artemenko, Ukrainian member of parliament
    • Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks
    • Arron Banks, primary funder and co-founder of Leave.EU campaign
    • Stephen K. Bannon, former Breitbart News chairman (2012–2016), Trump campaign CEO (August–November 2016), and White House Chief Strategist (January–August 2017)
    • William Barr, United States Attorney General (1990–1991, and again since February 2019), head of the United States Department of Justice
    • John R. Bolton, National Security Advisor (from April 2018)
    • John O. Brennan, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2013–2017)
    • Richard Burr, North Carolina Senator (R), chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee
    • Maria Butina, founder of “Right to Bear Arms [ru]” and associate of Alexander Torshin
    • Steve Calk, banker who helped Paul Manafort and Rick Gates steal and launder money
    • Cambridge Analytica, a now defunct political consulting, data mining, and analysis firm that worked for Trump’s campaign; its parent company was SCL Group
    • Michael Caputo, former chief of communications in New York
    • James Clapper, former Director of National Intelligence (DNI) (2010–2017)
    • Hillary Clinton, 2016 Democratic presidential nominee, former Secretary of State (2009–2013)
    • Sam Clovis, former co-chairman and policy adviser for the Trump campaign
    • Dan Coats, Director of National Intelligence (since March 2017)
    • Michael Cohen, Donald Trump’s personal attorney
    • Columbus Nova, the American investment arm of Viktor Vekselberg’s business emipre
    • James B. Comey, 7th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (2013–2017)
    • Concord Management and Consulting, accused of funding a troll farm that interfered in the 2016 election
    • Jerome Corsi, American political commentator and associate of Roger Stone
    • Gregory Craig, Former Obama White House counsel
    • Randy Credico, American perennial political candidate
    • Oleg Deripaska, Russian oligarch, aluminum magnate with close ties to Putin
    • Kirill Dmitriev, CEO of the Russian Direct Investment Fund
    • Annie Donaldson, former Deputy White House Counsel
    • Eric A. Dubelier, former Federal prosecuter and attorney for Concord Management and Consulting
    • T. S. Ellis III, a United States District Judge of the Eastern District of Virginia presiding over Paul Manafort’s trial in Virginia. He was appointed by Ronald Reagan in 1987 and took senior status in 2007.
    • Paul Erickson, Republican activist involved in several Republican presidential campaigns and romantic partner of Maria Butina


    • Nigel Farage, leader of UKIP (2006–2009, 2010–2016) and a Member of the European Parliament (since 1999)
    • Dianne Feinstein, California Senator (D), member of the Senate Intelligence Committee (former chairwoman, 2009–2015) and ranking member of the Senate Judiciary Committee
    • Michael T. Flynn, former Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (2012–2014), former National Security Advisor (January–February 2017)
    • Rick Gates, deputy to Manafort during the Trump campaign
    • Rudy Giuliani, former Mayor of New York City (1994–2001), and personal attorney for President Trump (since April 2018)
    • Rob Goldstone, British publicist of Russian singer Emin Agalarov
    • J. D. Gordon, Trump transition team member, and Director of National Security for the Trump campaign (since March 2016)
    • Chuck Grassley, Iowa Senator (R), former chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee (2015–2019), and President pro tempore of the United States Senate (since 2019)
    • Guccifer 2.0, a hacker alias used by the Russian Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU)
    • Hope Hicks, press secretary for the Trump campaign and White House Communications Director (August 2017 – February 2018)
    • Beryl A. Howell, Chief United States District Judge for the District Court for the District of Columbia
    • Internet Research Agency (IRA), a Russian entity charged with coordinating online propaganda efforts, finances managed by Khusyaynova, funded by Prigozhin
    • Andrew Intrater, Columbus Nova CEO, cousin of Viktor Vekselberg
    • Frederick Intrater, brother of Columbus Nova CEO Andrew Intrater, cousin of Viktor Vekselberg
    • Amy Berman Jackson, U.S. District Court Judge in the District of Columbia overseeing one of Mueller’s cases against Paul Manafort
    • Irakly “Ike” Kaveladze, Georgian-American senior vice president at the Crocus Group
    • Konstantin V. Kilimnik, Paul Manafort’s right-hand man in Kiev, Ukraine, alleged Russian intelligence operative[3]
    • Simon Kukes, Russian-American businessman and associate of Vekselberg, German Khan, Len Blavatnik, Mikhail Fridman, and Vyacheslav Pavlovsky [ru] with ties to Russian businesses and the Russian government
    • Sergey Kislyak, former Russian ambassador to the United States (2008–2017)
    • Elena Alekseevna Khusyaynova, Russian accountant who managed social media troll operation finances (including the IRA) which interfere in 2016 elections and 2018 midterm elections, called “Project Lakhta”
    • Jared Kushner, real estate investor, son-in-law and Senior Advisor to President Trump


    • Corey Lewandowski, former manager of Trump’s primary election campaign (until June 2016)
    • Paul Manafort, political consultant and former lobbyist for Viktor Yanukovych, former campaign manager and chairman of the Trump campaign (June–August 2016), and Trump convention manager (March 2016)
    • Simona Mangiante, Italian lawyer and wife of George Papadopoulos (since March 2018)[4]
    • Andrew McCabe, Deputy (February 2016 – January 2018) and Acting Director of the FBI (May–August 2017)
    • Mitch McConnell, Kentucky Senator (R) and Senate Majority Leader
    • Donald McGahn, White House Counsel to President Trump (January 2017 – October 2018)
    • Amit Mehta, District Judge of the District Court for the District of Columbia
    • Joseph Mifsud, Maltese academic connected with Russian politicians and George Papadopoulos
    • Andrew Miller, Roger Stone’s associate
    • Robert S. Mueller III, 6th FBI Director (2001–2013), appointed special counsel for the Russian interference investigation
    • George Nader, businessman and lobbyist who acted as the Trump campaign’s liaison to the United Arab Emirates
    • Jerrold Nadler, Congressman (D-NY), chairman of the House Judiciary Committee (since January 2019)
    • National Rifle Association, commonly known as the NRA
    • Paul M. Nakasone, Commander of United States Cyber Command (since May 2018)
    • Richard Neal, Congressman (D-MA), chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee (since January 2019)
    • Kirstjen Nielsen, Secretary of Homeland Security (since December 2017)
    • Alexander Nix, former CEO of Cambridge Analytica
    • Sam Nunberg, former political advisor to Trump campaign
    • Devin Nunes, Congressman (R-CA), ranking member (since 2019) and former chairman of the House Intelligence Committee (2015–18)
    • Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States (2009–2017)
    • Bruce Ohr, director of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (2014–2017) and Associate Deputy Attorney General (2017)
    • Carter Page, oil industry consultant, former Trump campaign advisor on foreign policy
    • George Papadopoulos, former advisor to the Trump campaign
    • W. Samuel Patten, a lobbyist and associate of Paul Manafort, senior consultant for SCL Group
    • Mike Pence, 48th and current Vice President of the United States (since January 2017)
    • Dmitry Peskov, Putin’s Press Secretary, and diplomat
    • Mike Pompeo, Secretary of State (from April 2018); CIA director (January 2017 – March 2018)
    • Reince Priebus, Trump’s first White House Chief of Staff, former chairman of the Republican National Committee
    • Yevgeny Prigozhin, Russian oligarch who funded the IRA and owns “Concord Management and Consulting” and “Concord Catering”, called “Putin’s chef”
    • Erik Prince, chairman of Frontier Services Group, brother of Trump Administration Education Secretary Betsy DeVos, and founder of private military company Academi (formerly known as “Blackwater”)
    • Vladimir Putin, 2nd and 4th President of Russia


    • Edgardo Ramos, District Judge of the District Court for the Southern District of New York
    • Susan Rice, former National Security Advisor (2013–2017)
    • Michael S. Rogers, Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) (since 2014)
    • Dana Rohrabacher, former Congressman (R-CA) (1989–2019)
    • Rod Rosenstein, Deputy Attorney General, acting Attorney General for Russia–Trump investigations
    • Wilbur Ross, 39th and current United States Secretary of Commerce (since 2017)
    • Paul Ryan, Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (2015–2018)
    • Bernie Sanders, 2016 Democratic primary presidential candidate, Vermont Senator (I) (since 2007)
    • Sarah Huckabee Sanders, White House Press Secretary (July 2017–June 2019)
    • Felix Sater, Russian-American former mobster, real estate developer, and former managing director of Bayrock Group LLC
    • Adam B. Schiff, Congressman (D-CA), Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee since 2019, and preceding ranking member
    • Keith Schiller, former Deputy Assistant and concurrent Director of Oval Office Operations, and longtime personal body guard to Trump
    • SCL Group, parent company of Cambridge Analytica
    • Jeff Sessions, United States Attorney General (February 2017 – November 2018), former Alabama Senator (R) (1997–2017)
    • Jay Sekulow, chief counsel at the American Center for Law & Justice, former personal attorney of Donald Trump
    • Cody Shearer, political activist and former journalist, author of the “Shearer memo/dossier” that Steele passed on to the FBI
    • Dimitri Simes, publisher of The National Interest and CEO of think tank Center for the National Interest
    • Glenn R. Simpson, co-founder of Fusion GPS, who hired Steele to compile damaging information on Trump and Russia
    • Peter W. Smith, Republican operative and Illinois financier who had ties to Michael Flynn as early as 2015
    • Sean Spicer, former White House Press Secretary (January–July 2017) and White House Director of Communications (June–July 2017)
    • Christopher Steele, former British MI6 intelligence officer, author of dossier on Trump and Russia
    • Jill Stein, Green Party nominee in the 2016 United States presidential election
    • Roger Stone, political consultant, former staffer to President Richard Nixon (1972–1974), former business partner of Manafort (1980s)
    • Peter Strzok, FBI agent removed from the investigation in August 2017
    • Rex Tillerson, 69th United States Secretary of State (2017–2018), and former CEO of ExxonMobil (2006–2017)
    • Ivan Timofeev, program director of the Kremlin-sponsored Valdai Discussion Club
    • Alexander Torshin, Russian Senator from Mari El Republic (2001–2015) and Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Russia (2015–2018)
    • Donald Trump, 45th President of the United States (since 2017), former real estate developer (1971–2016)
    • Donald Trump Jr., Executive Director of The Trump Organization, son of Donald Trump
    • Eric Trump, Executive Vice President of The Trump Organization, son of Donald Trump
    • Ivanka Trump, daughter of Donald Trump and Advisor to the President (2017–present)
    • Alex van der Zwaan, Dutch attorney guilty of making false statements to the FBI
    • Viktor Vekselberg, Russian oligarch
    • Natalia Veselnitskaya, Russian attorney, best known for lobbying against the Magnitsky Act
    • Allen Weisselberg, Chief Financial Officer of The Trump Organization
    • Matthew Whitaker, acting US Attorney General (November 2018 – February 2019)
    • Andy Wigmore, director of communications for Leave.EU and close associate of Arron Banks
    • Michael Wolff, journalist and author of Fire and Fury about the Trump White House
    • Christopher A. Wray, Director of the FBI (since August 2017)
    • Alexander Yakovenko, Russian ambassador to the United Kingdom (since 2011)

    Before Donald Trump’s candidacy[edit]


    • Soviet Ambassador Yuri Dubinin invites Trump on an all-expenses-paid trip to the Soviet Union.[5][6]


    • Kilimnik attends the Military Institute of the Ministry of Defense [ru] from 1987 until 1992.[7]:141
    • July: Trump and his wife, Ivana, who speaks Russian,[8] make their first visit to the Soviet Union (which included the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic [RSFSR]).[9][10][11][12][13]:13 They scout potential construction sites for a Trump Tower Moscow.[11][12]


    • December 26: Dissolution of the Soviet Union occurs, wherein the RSFSR becomes the Russian Federation (commonly simplified to “Russia”).


    • Trump returns to Russia, visits Moscow with Howard Lorber and Bennett S. LeBow[14] to scout potential properties for “skyscrapers and hotels”,[15] registers his trademark, and makes connections with the development company Bayrock Group (which would result in Trump Soho) and Felix Sater, who became crucial to later Trump Moscow talks.[16][12] Trump subsequently announces a plan to invest $250 million in Russia and brand two luxury residential buildings in Moscow, which doesn’t come to fruition.[2]:14


    • February 14: Trump withdraws his bid for the Reform Party nomination in the 2000 United States presidential election,[13]:75 but writes that he cannot rule out another run for president.[17] Stone chaired Trump’s exploratory committee.[18][19]


    • Patten and Kilimnik work together at the International Republican Institute (IRI). Patten runs the think tank’s Moscow office and considers Kilimnik a key employee.[20]


    • Manafort begins his relationship with his patron, Deripaska.[13]
    • November 22: The Orange Revolution begins, eventually resulting in a revote ordered by the Supreme Court of Ukraine.[13]:155


    • Trump gives Bayrock Group an exclusive deal to build a Trump-branded property in Moscow.[21]
    • Kilimnik leaves the IRI to work for Manafort in Ukraine.[20]
    • June: Paul Manafort and his business partner Rick Davis propose a plan to Deripaska under which they would influence news coverage, business dealings, and politics in the former Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States “to benefit President Vladimir Putin’s government.” They eventually sign a $10 million contract that starts in 2006 using LOAV Ltd. instead of Davis-Manafort; they maintain a business relationship until at least 2009.[22]


    • At Donald Trump’s request, Sater accompanies Ivanka Trump and Donald Trump Jr. on a Moscow trip, and arranges for Ivanka to sit in Putin’s office chair during a tour of the Kremlin.[23][2]:17
    • January: Davis introduces Senators John McCain, Saxby Chambliss, and John E. Sununu to Deripaska at the World Economic Forum in Davos. They meet at a private apartment and have dinner at Peter Munk’s ski chalet. Later in the month, Deripaska sends Davis and Manafort a letter thanking Davis for arranging the meeting with the senators.[24]
    • August: Davis and Deripaska meet with McCain at a restaurant for a dinner with a dozen people in Montenegro. McCain is there as part of an official Senate trip. Davis is in Montenegro because his firm, Davis-Manafort, assisted the governing party with their recent independence campaign, which was bankrolled by Deripaska, the largest employer in Montenegro. After the dinner, a group including Davis and McCain travel to a nearby yacht on the Adriatic Sea for a party celebrating McCain’s 70th birthday.[24][25]


    • Manafort founds Pericles Emerging Markets, an investment fund primarily backed by Deripaska.[26][27]
    • October 15: Trump praises Putin in an interview on CNN.[28]
    • 2007–2012: Manafort receives $12.7 million in undisclosed cash payments from Viktor Yanukovych’s pro-Russian Ukrainian Party of Regions.[27]
    • November: Trump attends the Millionaire’s Fair in Moscow, where he announces that Trump Vodka will expand its distribution into Russia, his first foray into the Russian market.[29][30][31]


    • 2008:
      • Around 2008, Trump Jr. travels to Russia a half-dozen times in 18 months, looking for deals.[32]
      • Deripaska transfers $18.9 million to Pericles Emerging Markets to purchase Black Sea Cable. It is unclear what happened to the money: Deripaska demands an accounting of the funds in 2013, sues Pericles in 2014, and sues Manafort in 2018.[26][27][33]
      • A spokesperson for Deripaska denies he ever hired Manafort’s consulting company.[22]
    • July: Trump sells the Palm Beach estate Maison de L’Amitie to Russian oligarch Dmitry Rybolovlev for a record $95 million. Trump bought the property for $41.35 million three years earlier and made only minor improvements.[34]
    • September: Trump Jr., then an executive vice president of The Trump Organization, says, “Russians make up a pretty disproportionate cross-section of a lot of our assets, say, in Dubai, and certainly with our project in SoHo and anywhere in New York. We see a lot of money pouring in from Russia.”[35][36][37]
    • November: Davis-Manafort is disbanded shortly after the presidential election.[38]


    • The Trump International Hotel and Tower in Toronto receives timely financing from Vnesheconombank (VEB), a Russian state-run investment bank.[39]
    • Deripaska lends $10 million to a company jointly owned by Manafort and his wife.[40]


    • Maria Butina founds the “Right to Bear Arms [ru]” organization.[41]
    • 2011–2013: Protests occur in Russia against its legislative and presidential election processes. Putin accuses U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton of interfering in Russian politics.[42]
    • April 29 – May 1: Nashville lawyer G. Kline Preston IV introduces Russian Senator Alexander Torshin to National Rifle Association (NRA) president David Keene at the NRA annual meeting in Pittsburgh.[43][44] A witness claims financial support for Torshin by the NRA was discussed.[45]
    • May 7: Keene sends Torshin a handwritten letter offering to help in his endeavors.[45]
    • December 8: Putin states that Clinton “set the tone for some opposition activists”, and “gave them a signal, they heard this signal and started active work”.[46]


    • The FBI warns Representative Dana Rohrabacher that he is being targeted by Russian agents to recruit him as an “agent of influence”; that is, someone who can affect Washington policy.[47]
    • Italian MEP Gianni Pittella introduces Simona Mangiante, the future wife of George Papadopoulos, to Joseph Mifsud in Brussels. Mangiante worked for the European Parliament as an attorney specializing in child abduction cases.[4][48]
    • April 12–15: Torshin attends the NRA annual convention in St. Louis, Missouri with an “all access” pass.[49][50]
    • November 8: Torshin visits the NRA headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia.[49]
    • December 14: President Barack Obama signs the Magnitsky Act into law to punish Russian officials responsible for human rights violations.[51]


    • Apparent security hackers gain access to the Trump Organization’s domain registrar account at GoDaddy and register hundreds of “shadow” subdomains with IP addresses located at a company in St. Petersburg Russia known for hosting websites containing malware. In November 2017, the subdomains disappeared after the Trump Organization was notified of the issue, although the company denies that any breach occurred. August is specifically noted.[52]
    • January: Carter Page, a petroleum industry consultant, passes documents about the oil market to Victor Podobnyy, a Russian intelligence agent. He later claims the documents were public information. Podobnyy is charged with being an unregistered foreign agent in 2015.[53]
    • March 13: The FBI interviews Manafort about his offshore business dealings.[54]
    • March 19: Manafort has dinner with Rohrabacher as part of his lobbying efforts for the government of Ukraine. Vin Weber, a partner at Mercury Affairs, is also in attendance.[55] Three days later, Manafort gives Rohrabacher a $1,000 campaign contribution.[56] Richard Gates, Manafort’s deputy, pleads guilty in 2018 to lying about the meeting to the FBI.[55]
    • April 13: Two agents of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) discuss recruiting Page.[57][58]
    • May 3–5: Butina and Torshin attend the NRA convention in Houston, Texas.[59][60]
    • June 15–18: Attending the Miss USA 2013 pageant, Trump dines with Aras Agalarov, Emin Agalarov, and Rob Goldstone in Las Vegas.[61] The next day he announces that Miss Universe 2013 will be held in Moscow.[61] He sends Putin a letter inviting him to the pageant[62] and asks on Twitter whether the Russian president will be his “new best friend”.[63]
    • July 3: Carter Page schedules a dinner with potential investor Russian oligarch Viktor Vekselberg to pitch his fledgling natural gas business. It is unclear whether the meeting took place.[25]
    • August:
      • Eric Trump tells author James Dodson, “We don’t rely on American banks […] We have all the funding we need out of Russia”, and says, “We go there all the time”. In May 2017, Eric Trump calls this “fabricated” and an example of why people distrust the media.[64][35][65][66][67]
    • August 25: Page sends a letter to an academic press in which he claims to be an adviser to the Kremlin.[68]
    • Early October: Butina makes a presentation on “Right to Bear Arms” to the Association for the Promotion of Weapons Culture in Israel. Her presentation includes a slide claiming her organization has cooperation agreements with similar organizations in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Estonia, and she informs the group that it also has a cooperation agreement with the NRA. Another slide states it has a cooperation agreement with the International Defensive Pistol Association, which the Texas-based organization denies when asked in 2018.[69]
    • October 17: In an appearance on the Late Show with David Letterman, Donald Trump says he has conducted “a lot of business with the Russians” and that he has met President Vladimir Putin.[70][71]
    • Early November: Keene, Alan Gottlieb, Gottlieb’s wife, and Paul Erickson attend the “Right to Bear Arms” conference in Moscow where they meet with Butina and Torshin.[72][43][73] Gottlieb and Keene are invited speakers at the event.[74][49][75] Gottlieb and his wife dine with Torshin and Butina, and receive “gifts that [display] research into their interests.” In 2017, Gottlieb tells the Washington Post, “They wanted to keep communications open and form friendships.”[43]
    • November 9–11: The Trump-owned Miss Universe pageant is held in Moscow, sponsored by Sberbank.[64] According to various reports, the event’s $20 million licensing fee is paid by a Moscow real estate development firm called the Crocus Group, whose president is Aras Agalarov and vice president is his son, pop singer Emin Agalarov.[29][76] One VIP guest is Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov, an alleged Russian mobster and fugitive who was recently indicted for running a high-stakes illegal gambling ring out of a Trump Tower apartment in New York City.[77] While Putin does not attend, the event is attended by Vladimir Kozhin,[78] the head of the Kremlin’s property department,[79] which is responsible for development projects.[80] After the event, Trump tells Real Estate Weekly, “the Russian market is attracted to me. I have a great relationship with many Russians”.[35][81] During the trip, Trump meets Herman Gref, the CEO of state-controlled Sberbank, Russia’s largest bank, and other oligarchs close to Putin.[82] Agalarov and Gref co-host a dinner for Trump at the Moscow branch of Nobu, which is owned by Agalarov.[83] Afterwards, Trump tweets to Agalarov, “I had a great weekend with you and your family. You have done a FANTASTIC job. TRUMP TOWER-MOSCOW is next.”[83][84]
    • November 12: The Moscow Times reports that Trump is in talks with Russian companies to build a new Trump tower in Moscow.[85]
    • November 21: The Ukrainian crisis starts when President Yanukovych suspends preparations for the implementation of an association agreement with the European Union.
    • December 10: John Bolton promotes gun rights in Russia in a video made for Butina’s “Right to Bear Arms” organization.[86][59]
    • December 23: Trump, Trump Jr., Emin Agalarov, and Kaveladze reach an agreement for the Trump Tower Moscow project under which the Trump Organization would receive a 3.5% commission on all sales.[87]:67–68


    • 2014:
      • Butina tells an American Facebook friend who complained about California’s gun restrictions that he should “hold demonstrations” for gun rights.[88]
      • Patten provides lobbying and consulting services to the Ukrainian Opposition Bloc political party and Lyovochkin, a party leader, without registering as a foreign agent. He travels many times to Ukraine to meet with Lyovochkin and Kilimnik.[89]
      • Patten works for Cambridge Analytica to hone their microtargeting operations during the 2014 midterm elections.[90]
    • Before January 24: The Crocus Group sends The Trump Organization a proposal to build a 194-meter tall building with 800 units at the Crocus City site in Moscow where the Miss Universe pageant was held.[87]:68
    • February 1–4: Kushner and Ivanka Trump travel to Russia on a four-day trip at the invitation of Dasha Zhukova, a longtime friend of Ivanka and the wife of Russian oligarch Roman Abramovich.[91] They attend a gala fundraiser for the Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center in Moscow along with Vekselberg, other oligarchs, Russian government officials, and their families.[91] Ivanka and Emin Agalarov tour the proposed Trump Tower Moscow site at Crocus City.[87]:68 In 2016–17, Kushner omits the trip from his security clearance applications.[91]
    • February 10: In a Fox and Friends phone interview, Trump says Putin contacted him while he was in Moscow for the Miss Universe pageant.[92]
    • March 6:
      • Obama initiates international sanctions on certain Russian individuals, businesses and officials, in response to the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea.[93]
      • Speaking at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), Trump says, “You know, I was in Moscow a couple of months ago, I own the Miss Universe Pageant and they treated me so great. Putin even sent me a present, a beautiful present.”[94]
    • March 21: Trump posts two tweets praising Putin regarding “Russian Empire”[95][96] on the day the Russian Federal Assembly ratifies the Treaty on Accession of the “Republic of Crimea”, formalizing the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.
    • April: The Russian Internet Research Agency (IRA) creates a department called the “translator project”. The department’s focus is on interfering in the U.S. election.[97][98]
    • April 12: Asked about Putin by Eric Bolling on the Fox News show Cashin’ In, Trump says Putin has taken the mantle from Obama. He continues, “Interestingly, I own the Miss Universe pageant, and we just left Moscow. He could not have been nicer. He was so nice and so everything. But you have to give him credit that what he’s doing for that country in terms of their world prestige is very strong.”[99]
    • April 24: Butina presents NRA president Jim Porter with an honorary membership in “Right to Bear Arms”.[100][101]
    • April 25–27: Butina and Torshin attend the NRA annual conference in Indianapolis. Butina attends several meetings as a guest of Keene.[72][102]
    • May: The IRA begins its election interference campaign of “spread[ing] distrust towards the candidates and the political system in general.”[97][98]
    • May 27: Speaking at a National Press Club luncheon, Trump again claims to have spoken to Putin. “I own the Miss Universe [pageant]. I was in Russia. I was in Moscow recently. And I spoke indirectly and directly with President Putin who could not have been nicer. And we had a tremendous success.”[103]
    • June 3: Kaveladze emails Trump Jr. and others about design elements and architectural details for Trump Tower Moscow.[87]:68
    • June 4–26: Aleksandra Krylova and Anna Bogacheva, two IRA employees, travel to the U.S. to collect intelligence. Maria Bovda, a third employee, is denied a visa.[97] All three are indicted in February 2018 for their work on election interference.[98]
    • June 10: Trump Jr. emails Kaveladze and others about design elements and architectural details for Trump Tower Moscow.[87]:68
    • June 16: Trump Jr. emails Kaveladze and others again about design elements and architectural details for Trump Tower Moscow.[87]:68
    • July 2: The FBI interviews Richard Gates about his international business dealings.[54]
    • July 7: The Trump Organization sends Crocus Group a set of questions about the “demographics of these prospective buyers” in the area around the proposed Trump Tower Moscow site, the development of neighboring parcels, and concepts for redesigning portions of the building.[87]:68
    • July 22: Laurence Levy, a lawyer with the law firm Bracewell & Giuliani, advises Rebekah Mercer, Steve Bannon, and Alexander Nix on the legality of their company, Cambridge Analytica, being involved in U.S. elections. He advises that Nix and any foreign nationals without a green card working for the company not be involved in any decisions about work the company performs for any clients related to U.S. elections. He further advises Nix to recuse himself from any involvement with the company’s U.S. election work because he is not a U.S. citizen.[104][105]
    • July 30: The FBI interviews Manafort about his international business dealings.[54]
    • August 4: The Trump Organization requests from Crocus Group the specifications for a Marriott-branded tower under construction near Crocus City.[87]:68
    • Late 2014: Butina resigns from her position as the head of “Right to Bear Arms”.[106]
    • September–November: The Trump Organization becomes less and less responsive to emails from the Crocus Group about the Trump Tower Moscow project, with the last response sent on November 24. Discussions end in the planning stage with no construction occurring.[87]:68
    • September 3: Paul Erickson attends a “Right to Bear Arms” forum in Moscow where he is a featured speaker.[72][107][108]
    • September 11: The IRA spreads a hoax they created about a fictitious chemical plant fire in Centerville, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, purportedly started by ISIS. The hoax includes tweets and YouTube videos showing a chemical plant fire. Centerville is home to many chemical plants, but the plant named in the tweets does not exist. Initial tweets are sent directly to politicians, journalists, and Centerville residents.[109]
    • September 21 – October 11: The Material Evidence art exhibition is displayed at the Art Beam gallery in the Chelsea neighborhood of New York City. It portrays the conflicts in Syria and Ukraine in a pro-Russian light. It is promoted by Twitter accounts that also spread the September 11 chemical plant fire hoax.[109] The exhibition is partly funded by the IRA.[110]
    • November 21: Bruce Ohr and Christopher Steele discuss cultivating Deripaska as a U.S. intelligence asset.[111]
    • November 26–30: An unnamed IRA employee travels to Atlanta.[97][98]
    • December 13:
      • The IRA uses Twitter to spread a hoax about an Ebola outbreak in Atlanta. Many of the Twitter accounts used in the September 11 chemical plant fire hoax also spread this hoax. The hoax includes a YouTube video of medical workers wearing hazmat suits.[109]
      • Using a different set of Twitter accounts, the IRA spreads a hoax about a purported police shooting of an unarmed black woman in Atlanta. The hoax includes a blurry video of the purported event.[109]

    January–June 2015[edit]

    • 2015
      • Russian oligarch Vladimir Potanin’s investment fund AltPoint Capital Partners purchases ByteGrid LLC, which operates some of Maryland’s election systems. Potanin is described as “very close” to Putin.[112] State officials are not informed of the purchase, and remain unaware until the FBI briefs them in July 2018.[113]
      • Patten and Kilimnik start a consulting firm together in Washington, D.C., called Begemot Ventures International Ltd. The firm provides consulting services in Ukraine and lobbying services in the U.S. for Ukrainian political parties without registering as a foreign agent.[89][114] Begemot shares office space with Cambridge Analytica.[90]
    • January 19–21: Patten and Kilimnik coordinate to arrange meetings for Serhiy Lyovochkin with members of the Senate Foreign Relations and the House Foreign Affairs committees, with officials from the State Department, and with numerous members of the U.S. media. In August 2018, Patten pleads guilty to failing to register as a foreign agent for this work.[20][114]
    • January 23: A court filing by the U.S. government contains a transcript of a recorded conversation between two members of a Russian SVR spy ring, Victor Podobnyy and Igor Sporyshev. Their conversation concerns efforts to recruit “Male-1”, later confirmed as Carter Page. Podobnyy calls Page an “idiot” and tells Sporyshev, “You get the documents from him and tell him to go fuck himself”.[57][53][115]
    • February: Dimitri Simes meets with Putin and other Russian officials in Moscow. Simes is the publisher of The National Interest and CEO of the think tank Center for the National Interest. The Center arranges meetings between Torshin, Butina, and U.S. government officials in April, and also arranges Trump’s April 27, 2016, speech at the Mayflower Hotel.[116]
    • February 26–28: Butina attends CPAC.[100][117]
    • March 18: Trump announces he is forming a presidential exploratory committee.[118]
    • Spring: U.S. Intelligence intercepts conversations of Russian government officials discussing associates of Donald Trump.[119]
    • April
      • Flynn begins advising ACU Strategic Partners, a company seeking to build nuclear power plants in the Middle East involving a sanctioned Russian company.[120]
      • Butina and Torshin meet with Treasury undersecretary for international affairs Nathan Sheets to discuss U.S. Russian economic relations during the Obama administration. The meeting was arranged by the Center for the National Interest.[116]
      • Torshin and Butina participate in discussions about the “Russian financial situation and its impact on Russian politics” at a private event moderated by Hank Greenberg and organized by the Center for the National Interest.[116]
    • April 7: Torshin and Butina meet with Federal Reserve vice chairman Stanley Fischer to discuss U.S. Russian economic relations during the Obama administration. The meeting was arranged by the Center for the National Interest.[116]
    • April 10: Butina, Torshin, and David Keene attend a fundraiser in Tennessee for Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker.[121][72]
    • April 11–12: Torshin and Butina attend the NRA convention in Nashville, Tennessee.[72] Torshin briefly converses with Trump. Torshin and the Trump family dispute how much was said.[122]
    • June 10: Flynn testifies before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on nuclear power in the Middle East. He omits his work for ACU Strategic Partners from both a committee disclosure form and his testimony.[123]
    • June 12: Maria Butina argues in an article she wrote for The National Interest that only a Republican president can improve relations between the U.S. and Russia.[124][125]

    2016 presidential campaign[edit]

    Further information: Donald Trump 2016 presidential campaign

    June–December 2015[edit]

    • June 16: Donald Trump announces his candidacy for president.[126]
    • June 17: In an interview on the Fox News show Hannity, Sean Hannity asks Trump if he has talked to Putin. Trump replies, “I don’t want to say. But I got to meet all of the leaders. I got to meet all—I mean, everybody was there. It was a massive event. And let me tell you, it was tremendous.”[127]
    • Late June: Flynn travels to Egypt and Israel.[123] In September 2017, members of Congress present evidence to Mueller that Flynn’s purpose was to promote a Russian-backed plan for the building of 40 nuclear reactors, with “total regional security” to be provided by U.S.-sanctioned Russian weapons exporter Rosoboron.[128][129][130][131]
    • July: Trump receives an invitation to Moscow for the 60th birthday of Aras Agalarov, who co-hosted the Miss Universe pageant with him in 2013.[132]
    • July onward: Thousands of fake Twitter accounts run by the IRA begin to praise Trump over his political opponents by a wide margin, according to a later analysis by The Wall Street Journal.[133][134]
    • July 11: Butina attends FreedomFest in Las Vegas, where Trump is speaking and taking questions. She asks Trump his stance on continuing sanctions; he replies he knows Putin and doesn’t think sanctions are needed.[41] Reviewing a video of the encounter, Bannon points out that “Trump had a fully developed answer”.[135]
    • July 13: Butina is present at Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker’s presidential candidacy announcement.[41]
    • July 15: George Papadopoulos contacts Trump campaign manager Corey Lewandowski about joining the campaign as a policy advisor.[136][87]:81
    • July 24: Rob Goldstone emails Trump’s assistant Rhona Graff, suggesting that Emin Agalarov could arrange a meeting between Putin and Trump.[137][138]
    • Summer: Hackers linked to the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) gain access to the Democratic National Committee’s computer network.[139] Dutch intelligence services alert their U.S. counterparts that a hacking group known as Cozy Bear has penetrated the Democratic National Committee (DNC) servers.[140]
    • August:
      • Papadopoulos emails Michael Glassner, the executive director of Trump’s campaign committee, expressing further interest in joining the campaign as a policy advisor. He continues corresponding with Glassner and Lewandowski for months, but is repeatedly told no position is available for him.[136]
    • August 4–6: Rohrabacher and Behrends travel to Russia.[141] While there, Rohrabacher meets Butina and Torshin for breakfast.[142] In July 2018, Rohrabacher tells Politico he dined with Butina and another congressman accompanying him on the trip.[143]
    • August 8: Roger Stone leaves the Trump campaign. The campaign says it fired Stone, but Stone insists he quit. He subsequently gives the press a resignation letter that the campaign says it never received.[144]
    • August 17: Konstantin Rykov, the founder of the Russian online newspaper Vzglyad, registers two domain names: and[87]:66
    • August 18: Georgi Asatryan of Vzglyad emails Hope Hicks to arrange an in-person or phone interview with Trump. According to the Mueller Report, the proposed interview never occurs.[87]:66
    • August 21: Sessions makes his first appearance at a Trump campaign rally.[145]
    • September:
      • An FBI special agent reports to the DNC that at least one of its computer systems has been hacked by an espionage team linked to the Russian government. The agent is transferred to a tech-support contractor at the help desk, who makes a cursory check of DNC server logs and does not reply to the agent’s follow-up calls, allegedly because of a belief that the call might have been a prank.[146]
      • Jill Stein speaks briefly with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov at a Russia Today gala in New York City.[147]
      • The FBI and Ohr try to recruit Deripaska as an informant on the Kremlin and Russian organized crime in exchange for a U.S. visa. Steele helped set up the meeting.[111]
      • A New York architect completes plans for a bold glass obelisk 100 stories high in Moscow, with the Trump logo on multiple sides.[148]
    • September–October: The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative website primarily funded by billionaire Paul Singer, hires Fusion GPS to perform opposition research on Trump. Initially a Marco Rubio supporter, Singer continues to fund the research after Rubio withdraws from the race.[149][150]
    • September 11: Trump speaks at the Yalta European Strategy conference in Kiev via satellite. The organizer of the event, Victor Pinchuk, donates $150,000 to Trump’s charity, the Trump Foundation.[151][152]
    • Late September: Felix Sater meets with Michael Cohen on behalf of I.C. Expert Investment Company to discuss building a Trump Tower in Moscow. I.C. Expert is a Russian real estate development corporation controlled by Andrei Vladimirovich Rozov. Sater agrees to find a developer and arrange for financing. Sater later contacts Rozov to propose that I.C. Expert work with the Trump Organization on the project.[153][154][87]:69
    • September 21: On Hugh Hewitt’s radio program, Trump says, “The oligarchs are under [Putin’s] control, to a large extent. I mean, he can destroy them, and he has destroyed some of them… Two years ago, I was in Moscow… I was with the top-level people, both oligarchs and generals, and top-of-the-government people. I can’t go further than that, but I will tell you that I met the top people, and the relationship was extraordinary.”[155]
    • September 22: Cohen forwards a Trump Tower Moscow preliminary design study to Giorgi Rtskhiladze, who then emails it to his associate Simon Nizharadze, writing, “”[i]f we could organize the meeting in New York at the highest level of the Russian Government and Mr. Trump this project would definitely receive the worldwide attention.”[87]:70
    • September 24: Rtskhiladze emails Cohen a draft letter for the Trump Organization to send to the mayor of Moscow, explaining, “”[w]e need to send this letter to the Mayor of Moscow (second guy in Russia) he is aware of the potential project and will pledge his support.” Later that day he sends Cohen a translation of the letter that describes Trump Tower Moscow as a “symbol of stronger economic, business and cultural relationships between New York and Moscow and therefore United States and the Russian Federation.”[87]:70
    • September 27: Rtskhiladze emails Cohen a proposal for the Trump Organization to partner with Global Development Group LLC on the Trump Tower Moscow project. He describes Global Development as controlled by Nizharadze and the architect Michail Posikhin. In September 2018 Cohen tells Mueller’s team that he declined the proposal and decided to continue with Sater’s proposed partner, I.C. Expert Investment Company.[87]:69–70
    • October: For his remarks during a cybersecurity forum in Washington, D.C., Flynn receives $11,250 from Kaspersky Government Security Solutions Inc., the American subsidiary of Kaspersky Lab, owned by Eugene Kaspersky.[156][157]
    • October 9: Sater emails Cohen about his plans to meet with and persuade Andrey Molchanov to provide the land for a Trump Tower in Moscow.[153][154]
    • October 12: Cohen has a series of email exchanges with Felix Sater about developing a Trump property in Moscow.[132] Sater tells Cohen that VTB Bank will fund the project, and that his associates will be meeting with Putin and a deputy on October 14.[153][154]
    • October 13: Sater sends Cohen a letter of intent signed by Andrey Rozov for Trump to sign in order to move the Moscow project forward.[158][154]
    • October 28: Trump signs a letter of intent {LOI} to construct a Trump-branded building in Moscow hours before the third Republican presidential debate, a fact made public in August 2017.[159][160][153][154][161] The LOI proposes that the tower have “[a]pproximately 250 first class, luxury residential condominiums” and “[o]ne first class, luxury hotel consisting of approximately 15 floors and containing not fewer than 150 hotel rooms.” The Trump Organization would receive 1%–5% of all condominium sales and 3% of all rental and other revenues, and 20% of the operating profit.[87]:71
    • November:
      • Trump associate Felix Sater emails Trump lawyer Michael Cohen: “Michael, I arranged for Ivanka to sit in Putin’s private chair at his desk and office in the Kremlin […] Our boy can become president of the USA and we can engineer it. I will get all of Putin’s team to buy in on this”.[162][29] Sater also tells Cohen that the Kremlin’s VTB Bank is ready to finance a Trump Tower project in Moscow.[64]
    • November 3:
      • In an email to Cohen, Sater predicts that building a Trump Tower in Moscow will help Trump’s presidential campaign. “I will get Putin on this program and we will get Donald elected.”[132][154]
      • The IRA Instagram account “Stand For Freedom” attempts to organize a confederate rally in Houston, Texas, on November 14. It is unclear if anyone showed up. The Mueller Report identifies this as the IRA’s first attempt to organize a U.S. rally.[163][87]:29
    • November 10: At the Republican debate in Milwaukee, Trump claims that he met Putin in a green room and “got to know him very well” while waiting to record their 60 minutes interviews that aired on September 27. Fact checkers quickly point out that Trump and Putin could not have met in the green room because Trump was interviewed in New York City and Putin was interviewed in Moscow.[164]
    • November 16: Lana Erchova (a.k.a. Lana E. Alexander) sends an email to Ivanka Trump in which she offers the services of her husband, Dmitry Klokov, to the Trump campaign.[165][87]:72 According to the Mueller Report, Klokov is the “Director of External Communications for PJSC Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System, a large Russian electricity transmission company, and had been previously employed as an aide and press secretary to Russia’s energy minister.”[165][87]:72–73 Ivanka forwards the email to Cohen.[87]:73 At least until August 2018, Cohen mistakenly thinks Klokov is the Olympic weightlifter of the same name.[87]:73
    • November 18:
      • IC Expert, the developer for the Trump Tower Moscow project and a signatory to Trump’s letter of intent, receives a non-revolving line of credit from Sberbank for 10.6 billion rubles.[166] IC Expert provides 100% of its equity to secure the line of credit.[166] Sberbank agrees to finance 70% of the project, its largest commercial real estate loan to date.[25]
      • Klokov writes in an email to Cohen that he is a “trusted person” offering “political synergy” and “synergy on a government level” to the Trump campaign. He suggests that Cohen travel to Moscow and meet with him and an intermediary. He says the conversations could facilitate an informal meeting between Trump and Putin, and that any such meeting must be separate from any business negotiations, though it would lead to high-level support for projects.[87]:73[165]
    • November 19:
      • The IRA creates the @TEN_GOP Twitter account. Purporting to be the “Unofficial Twitter account of Tennessee Republicans,” it peaks at over 100,000 followers.[167]
      • Julian Assange privately tells a group of core WikiLeaks supporters that he prefers the GOP win the election because Clinton “is a bright, well connected, sadistic sociopath” who will have “greater freedom to start wars than the GOP and has the will to do so.”[168]
      • Kolokov writes in an email to Cohen that a properly publicized meeting between Trump and Putin could have a “phenomenal” impact “in a businesss dimension” and boost the “level” of projects if he receives Putin’s endorsement.[87]:73–74 Cohen rejects Kolokov’s offers, writing, “”[c]urrently our LOI developer is in talks with VP’s Chief of Staff and arranging a formal invite for the two to meet.”[87]:74[165] In September 2018, Cohen tells Mueller’s team that he rejected the offers because he was already pursuing business with Sater and understood Sater had Russian government connections of his own.[87]:74
    • November 25: In an email to incoming NRA President Pete Brownell, Erickson writes, “most of the FSB agents ‘assigned’ to her [Butina] want to marry her”, saying that is why she was able to arrange a tour of a Russian arms factory for the NRA delegation.[169]
    • December: Unable to find a position in the Trump campaign, Papadopoulos joins the Ben Carson campaign.[136]
    • December 1: Sater emails Cohen, asking, “Please scan and send me a copy of your passport for the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.”[87]:76
    • December 2:
      • Trump tells the Associated Press that he is “not that familiar with” Felix Sater and refers questions to his staff.[170][154]
      • Flynn and his son, Michael G. Flynn (called “Jr.”), visit Kislyak at his home.[171]
    • December 3: Barbara Ledeen, a longtime staffer for Senator Chuck Grassley on the Senate Judiciary Committee and wife of close Flynn associate and Iran–Contra affair figure Michael Ledeen, sends Peter W. Smith a 25-page proposal for finding Clinton’s missing emails.[172][87]:62 The proposal posits that Clinton’s private email server was hacked and proposes, among other things, contacting foreign intelligence services to determine if they have any copies of Clinton’s emails.[87]:62 At the time, her investigation is not connected to the Trump campaign, though she gives Flynn regular updates throughout the summer of 2016.[87]:62 Smith forwards the email to two colleagues.[87]:62
    • December 8–13: Outspoken Trump supporter Milwaukee Sheriff David Clarke, former NRA President David Keene, future NRA President Pete Brownell, NRA Golden Ring of Freedom Chair Joe Gregory, major NRA donors Hilary[173] and Arnold Goldschlager, Outdoor Channel CEO Jim Liberatore,[174] and NRA member Paul Erickson travel to Moscow for the “Right to Bear Arms” convention. They meet Russian government officials, including Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin[175] and Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov. Rogozin is under U.S. sanctions. Butina accompanies the delegation on a tour of the gun manufacturer ORSIS, where they meet with the company’s executives, including Svetlana Nikolaev, president of ORSIS’s parent company and wife of billionaire Konstantin Nikolaev. They also meet with Torshin and Sergei Rudov, the head of the Saint Basil the Great Charitable Foundation. They attend a party at a Moscow hunting club hosted by Torshin and Pavel Gusev, the Chairman of the Public Council of the Russian Ministry of Defense. Clarke later files an ethics report showing that Butina’s organization, “Right to Bear Arms”, covered $6,000 of his expenses.[41][121][176][177][178][179][180] After the Lavrov meeting, Butina emails Torshin, writing, “We should let them express their gratitude now, and put pressure on them quietly later.”[181] In May 2018, NRA spokeswoman Dana Loesch denies there was an NRA trip to Moscow, then clarifies in July 2018 that it wasn’t an official trip.[107][182][183]
    • December 10:
      • Flynn gives a paid speech on world affairs in Moscow, at a gala dinner organized by RT News.[184] Flynn had appeared on RT as an analyst after retiring from the U.S. Army. Putin is the dinner’s guest of honor.[185] Flynn is seated next to Putin; also seated at the head table are Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein and members of Putin’s inner circle, including Sergei Ivanov, Dmitry Peskov, Vekselberg, and Alexey Gromov.[186][187] For his speech, Flynn nets $33,500 of the $45,000 paid to his speakers bureau.[188] For all of 2015, Flynn receives more than $65,000 from companies linked to Russia.[189]
      • ABC News reports that Trump denied knowing Sater under oath in a 2013 video deposition even though Sater was involved in several of his high-profile projects. Trump testified, “If he were sitting in the room right now, I really wouldn’t know what he looked like.” On December 30, Sater tells Cohen that he helped bury the story.[154][190][191]
    • December 16: Smith declines to help Ledeen’s endeavor to find Clinton’s emails because he feels the search isn’t viable at the time.[87]:63
    • December 19: In an email to Cohen, Sater talks about securing financing from VTB, a Russian bank under American sanctions.[132][87]:76 Sater also asks for Cohen’s and Trump’s passport information so that VTB can facilitate obtaining visas.[87]:76 VTB would be issuing the invitation, he writes, because “[p]olitically neither Putins office nor Ministry of Foreign Affairs cannot issue invite, so they are inviting commercially/ business.”[87]:76 He writes that they will be invited to the Russian consulate that week to receive an invitation and visas for traveling to Russia.[87]:76 Cohen sends images of his own passport but not Trump’s.[154][192][87]:76
    • December 21:
      • Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta receives an email, which is later leaked by WikiLeaks, advising the campaign on how to handle Trump, recommending that the “best approach is to slaughter Donald for his bromance with Putin”.[193]
      • Sater texts Cohen asking again for a copy of Trump’s passport.[87]:77 Cohen replies, “After I return from Moscow with you with a date for him.”[87]:77 In September 2018 Cohen tells Mueller’s team that Rhona Graff provided Trump’s passport to Cohen’s office, but the Mueller Report says the team could not find any evidence of a copy being sent to Sater.[87]:76-77
      • On Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Prikhodko’s behalf, Mira Duma emails Ivanka Trump an invitation for Donald Trump to attend the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. Duma is acquainted with Ivanka from the fashion industry.[87]:78
    • December 30: Cohen emails Sater complaining about the lack of progress on the Trump Tower Moscow project. Sater responds that he helped bury an ABC News story in which Trump denied knowing him.[154][190] Cohen tells Sater in a text message that he will set up a meeting with Russian government officials himself.”[87]:74
    • December 31: Sater tells Cohen that Genbank (Генбанк [ru]), recently put under U.S. sanctions, will be the new funder for the Trump Tower Moscow project.[154]
    • Late 2015 – early 2016: Trump Jr. and Ivanka Trump are included on emails about the Trump Tower Moscow project. Ivanka Trump recommends an architect.[154][194]

    January–March 2016[edit]

    • January: Flynn applies to renew his security clearance for five years. In an interview with security investigators he claims U.S. companies paid for his trip to the RT dinner in Moscow. Documents subsequently obtained by the House Oversight Committee show that RT paid for the trip.[195]
    • January 7: Ivanka Trump forwards to Rhona Graff the December 21 invitation for her father she received from Duma on Prikhodko’s behalf.[87]:78
    • January 11: Cohen tries to send an email to Dmitry Peskov asking to be connected to Putin’s chief of staff, Sergei Ivanov, but it bounces because of a typo in the email address.[87]:74
    • January 14:
      • Cohen emails Peskov seeking help to jump-start the Trump Tower Moscow project because “the communication between our two sides has stalled”, but does not receive a response.[132][154][196][197][87]:74 In August 2017 Peskov tells CNN that Cohen’s email “went unanswered [because it] was solely regarding a real estate deal and nothing more.”[196]
      • Graff responds to Duma’s December 21 email that Trump is “honored to be asked to participate in the highly prestigious” St. Petersburg Forum, but must decline the invitation because of his “very grueling and full travel schedule.” Graff asks Duma if she should “send a formal note to the Deputy Prime Minister,” and Duma replies that that would be “great.”[87]:78–79
    • January 16: Cohen emails at Peskov at, the correct address he mistyped on January 11, and repeats his request to speak with Ivanov.[154][87]:74 Later Cohen tells Congress and Mueller’s team that he received no response to this email and abandoned the Trump Moscow Project. He later admits to federal prosecutors that he did receive a response and continued working on the project and keeping Trump updated on progress into June 2016.[198][87]:74–75
    • January 19: Konstantin Sidorkov, executive at VKontakte (commonly called VK, Russia’s equivalent of Facebook), emails Trump Jr. and social media director Dan Scavino offering to help promote Trump’s campaign to its nearly 100 million users. Goldstone brokered the overture.[132] Sidorkov emails again on November 5, 2016.[199]
    • January 20:
      • A Russian social media company emails Trump Jr., Trump’s personal assistant, and Scavino about setting up a page for Trump’s campaign.[132]
      • Peskov’s personal assistant Elena Polikova sends an email to Cohen from her personal account asking him to call her on her personal phone number, which she provides.[87]:75 Cohen calls her and explains the nature and status of the project, and asks for assistance with securing land and financing.[87]:75[154][200] The conversation includes a discussion of giving Putin a $50 million penthouse in the tower as a gift.[154][200] Later Cohen tells prosecutors that Polikova took notes, asked detailed questions, and said she needed to follow up with people in Russia.[87]:75
    • January 21: Sater texts Cohen asking for a call. He writes, “It’s about Putin they called today.”[87]:75[154] Sater emails Cohen a draft invitation from Genbank for Cohen to visit Russia, which Sater says is being offered at the behest of VTB, and asks Cohen if any changes need to be made.[87]:75 Sater and Cohen work on edits for the next few days.[87]:75
    • January 25: Sater sends Cohen a signed invitation from Andrey Ryabinskiy of the company MHJ to travel to “Moscow for a working visit” about the “prospects of development and the construction business in Russia,” “the various land plots available suited for construction of this enormous Tower,” and “the opportunity to co-ordinate a follow up visit to Moscow by Mr. Donald Trump.”[87]:75[154] In September 2018 Cohen tells Mueller’s team that he didn’t use the invitation to travel to Moscow because he didn’t receive any concrete proposals for suitable land plots.[87]:75-76
    • January 26: Sater asks Cohen to take a call from Evgeny Shmykov, who is coordinating their project in Moscow. Cohen agrees.[154]
    • February–April: Papadopoulos works for the same company as Mifsud, the London Centre of International Law Practice.[48][201][202]
    • February 2: Trump comes in second in the Iowa caucuses. In 2017 Cohen asserts that all efforts on the Trump Tower Moscow project ended before this date.[154]
    • February 4: Papadopoulos contacts Lewandowski via LinkedIn and emails Michael Glassner about joining the Trump campaign.[87]:82
    • February 4–6: Papadopoulos reaches out to the London Centre of International Law Practice (LCILP) looking for a job because his role at the Carson campaign is over. He takes a position at the ICILP’s London office.[87]:81–82
    • February 10: IRA instructs workers to “use any opportunity to criticize Hillary and the rest (except Sanders and Trump—we support them).” [132]
    • February 28: Sessions formally endorses Trump.[145]
    • February 29:
      • Manafort submits a five-page proposal to Trump outlining his qualifications to help Trump secure enough convention delegates and win the Republican presidential nomination. Manafort describes how he assisted several business and political leaders, notably in Russia and Ukraine.[203]
      • Trump receives a letter from Aras Agalarov expressing “great interest” in Trump’s “bright electoral campaign.”[132]
    • March: Carter Page begins working for the Trump campaign as an unpaid foreign policy adviser.[204][205][206]
    • Early March: Papadopoulos tells Glassner he is free again to join Trump’s campaign. Glassner connects Papadopoulos with campaign co-chairman Sam Clovis. Clovis tells Papadopoulos that improving Russia relations is a top foreign policy goal for the campaign.[136]
    • Clovis recommends Carter Page to the campaign.[207]
    • March 2:
      • Assange consoles a core WikiLeaks supporter who is upset about Clinton’s success in the primary elections the day before, writing, “Perhaps Hillary will have a stroke.”[168]
      • Papadopoulos again emails Glassner about joining the Trump campaign. Joy Lutes responds to Papaoapoulos that Glassner instructed her to introduce him to national co-chair and chief policy advisor Sam Clovis.[87]:82
    • March 3:
      • Sessions is appointed to the Trump campaign’s national security advisory committee.[145]
      • Clovis researches Papadopoulos on Google. Clovis is impressed with his past work at the Hudson Institute and arranges a phone call for March 6.[87]:82
    • March 6: Clovis asks Papadopoulos to join the Trump campaign as a foreign policy advisor after discussing the position in a phone call.[87]:82[208][209][210] The campaign hires Papadopoulos on Ben Carson’s recommendation.[211] Papadopoulos is told that a priority of the campaign is a better relationship with Russia.[132][87]:82
    • March 12: Russian-American Simon Kukes donates $2,700 to the Trump campaign. It is his first-ever political donation. In 2017 his 2016 political donations become a subject of the Mueller investigation.[212]
    • March 14: Papadopoulos first meets Mifsud while in Rome on a trip to visit officials affiliated with Link Campus University as part of his LCILP job.[208][213][87]:82–83 After Papadopoulos mentions his position with the Trump campaign, Mifsud shows more interest and offers to introduce him to European leaders and others with contacts to the Russian government.[87]:83
    • March 15:
      • Trump says he has become “the biggest political story anywhere in the world.”[214]
      • In Moscow, Russian military intelligence hacker Ivan Yermakov, working for Fancy Bear, begins probing the DNC computer network.[214]
      • In St. Petersburg, shift workers posing as Americans follow instructions to attack Clinton on Facebook and Twitter.[214]
    • March 16:
      • The FBI releases its Report of Investigation on Flynn’s security clearance renewal application.[195]
      • WikiLeaks publishes a searchable archive of 30,000 Clinton emails that had been released by the State Department in response to a FOIA request.[215][87]:44–45 Internal Wikileaks messages indicate the purpose of the archive is to annoy Clinton and establish WikiLeaks as a “resource/player” in the election.[87]:44–45
    • March 17:
      • According to Trump’s written answers to Mueller’s team, Prikhodko sends another invitation for Trump to attend the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum to Rhona Graff.[87]:79
      • Papadopoulos returns to London from his Rome trip.[87]:84
    • March 19: Podesta is asked to change his email password in an apparent phishing attempt, believed to be spearheaded by Russian hackers. They gain access to his account,[139] and proceed to steal the entire contents of his account, about 50,000 emails.[132]
    • March 21:
      • In a Washington Post interview,[216][217] Trump names members of his foreign policy team, including Papadopoulos and Page.[132][87]:84 Page had helped open the Moscow office of investment banking firm Merrill Lynch and advised Russian state-owned energy giant Gazprom, in which Page is an investor. He had blamed 2014 US sanctions relating to Russia’s annexation of Crimea for driving down Gazprom’s stock price.[218]
      • Hackers allegedly steal over 50,000 emails from Podesta’s account.[219]
    • March 24:
      • In London, Papadopoulos meets Mifsud and Olga Polonskaya, who falsely claims to be Putin’s niece.[220] Polonskaya tells Papadopoulos that she is a friend of the Russian ambassador in London and offers to help establish contacts with Russia.[87]:84 Papadopoulos leaves the meeting with the expectation that he will be introduced to the Russian ambassador, but it never occurs.[87]:84 Polonskaya is in regular email contact with Papadopoulos, in one message writing, “We are all very excited by the possibility of a good relationship with Mr. Trump”.[213]
      • Papadopoulos emails Trump campaign officials about his new Russian contacts.[132] He emails Trump’s foreign policy team that he met with Putin’s niece and the Russian ambassador in London, and claims the ambassador also acts the as the Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia.[87]:84 He writes that the Russian leadership wants to meet with campaign officials in a “neutral” city or Moscow “to discuss U.S.-Russia ties under President Trump”, and that Putin and the Russian leadership are ready to meet with Trump.[87]:84 Clovis replies that he thinks any meetings with Russians should be delayed until after the campaign has a chance to talk with NATO allies and “we have everyone on the same page.”[87]:85
      • Papadopoulos searches Google for information on Polonskaya and discovers that she is not Putin’s niece.[87]:84
    • March 28: Manafort is brought on to the campaign to lead the delegate-wrangling effort.[132]
    • March 29:
      • On Stone’s recommendation,[221] Manafort joins the Trump campaign as convention manager, tasked with lining up delegates.[222]
      • Polonskaya attempts to send Papadopoulos a text message that was drafted by Mifsud. The message addresses Papadopoulos’s “wish to engage with the Russian Federation.”[87]:87
    • March 30: Alexandra Chalupa, who worked in the White House Office of Public Liaison during the Clinton administration, briefs the DNC’s communications staff on Manafort’s and Trump’s ties to Russia.[223]
    • March 31:
      • At the first meeting of Trump’s foreign policy team, which includes Trump and Sessions, Papadopoulos speaks of his connections with Russia, and offers to negotiate a meeting between Trump and Putin.[132][224][87]:86 The meeting is held at the yet-to-open Trump International Hotel Washington, D.C..[136] Sessions later states he opposed the idea,[213][225][226][227] and two people who were present support his assertions, but differ in what he objected to and how strongly.[87]:86 In late summer 2017 Papadopoulos amd J.D. Gordon tell Mueller’s team that Trump was “supportive and receptive to the idea of a meeting with Putin,” and that Sessions supported Papadopoulos’s efforts to arrange a meeting.[87]:86 Papadopoulos’s lawyers assert in a September 2018 court filing that Trump nodded in agreement to the offer, and that Sessions said the campaign should look into it.[228]
      • Graff prepares a letter for Trump’s signature that declines Prikhodko’s March 17 invitation to St. Petersburg because of Trump’s busy schedule, but says he otherwise “would have gladly given every consideration to attending such an important event.”[87]:79
      • New York investment banker Robert Foresman emails Graff seeking an in-person meeting with Trump. The email is sent after Trump business associate Mark Burnett brokers an introductory phone call. Foresman writes that he has long-standing personal and professional expertise in Russia and Ukraine, and mentions that he was involved with setting up an early private back channel between Putin and former president George W. Bush. He also writes about an “approach” he received from “senior Kremlin officials” about Trump. He asks Graff for a meeting with Trump, Lewandowski, or “another relevant person” to discuss the approach and other “concrete things” that he doesn’t want to discuss over “unsecure email.”[87]:79
    • Spring:
      • U.S. intelligence officials’ suspicions of Russian meddling in the presidential election grow after their counterparts in Europe warn that Russian money might be flowing into the election.[119]
      • Stone tells associates he is in contact with Assange.[229]

    April–May 2016[edit]

    • April:
      • Between April and November 2016, there are at least 18 further exchanges by telephone and email between Russian officials and the Trump team.[230][231]
      • Hackers linked to the GRU gain access to the DNC computer network.[139]
      • Russian social media company SocialPuncher releases an analysis showing that Trump has quoted or retweeted Twitter bots 150 times since the beginning of 2016.[232][233]
      • The IRA starts buying online ads on social media and other sites. The ads support Trump and attack Clinton.[97][98]
      • Marc Elias, a lawyer at Perkins Coie and general counsel for the Clinton campaign, takes over funding of the Fusion GPS Trump investigation. He uses discretionary funds at his disposal and does not inform the campaign about the research.[234][235][150]
      • The intelligence agency of a Baltic state shares a piece of intelligence with the director of the CIA regarding the Trump campaign. The intelligence is allegedly a recording of a conversation about Russian government money going to the Trump campaign.[236]
    • April 1: Carter Page is invited to deliver a commencement address at a prestigious economic school in Moscow.[132]
    • April 1–3:
      • Rohrabacher meets with Natalia Veselnitskaya in Moscow to discuss the Magnitsky Act. Vladimir Yakunin, under U.S. sanctions, is also present.[237][238] Rohrabacher later says he met Yakunin at the request of Kislyak.[239] He also meets with officials at the Russian Prosecutor General’s office, where he receives a document full of accusations against Magnitsky. U.S. Embassy officials are worried Rohrabacher may be meeting with FSB agents. The meeting at the prosecutor’s office is not on his itinerary.[237] The document is given to Rohrabacher by Deputy Prosecutor Viktor Grin, who is under U.S. sanctions authorized by the Magnitsky Act. Rohrabacher subsequently uses the document in efforts to undermine the Magnitsky Act.[239] His accepting the document from Grin, a sanctioned individual, and using it to influence U.S. government policy leads to a July 21, 2017, complaint being filed against Rohrabacher and his staff director, Paul Behrends, for violating Magnitsky Act sanctions.[240]
      • While in Moscow with Rohrabacher, Rohrabacher’s aide Paul Behrends introduces Congressman French Hill to Veselnitskaya and Rinat Akhmetshin.[241][238] Veselnitskaya gives Hill a document nearly identical to the one Grin gave to Rohrabacher.[242]
    • April 4:
      • A rally is held in Buffalo, New York, protesting the death of India Cummings. Cummings was a black woman who had recently died in police custody. The IRA’s “Blacktivist” account on Facebook actively promotes the event, reaching out directly to local activists on Facebook Messenger asking them to circulate petitions and print posters for the event. Blacktivist supplies the petitions and poster artwork.[243]
      • Graff emails her March 31 letter for Prikhodko to Jessica Macchia, another executive assistant to Trump, to print on letterhead for Trump to sign.[87]:79
      • Graff forwards Foresman’s March 31 email to Macchia.[87]:79
    • April 6: Hackers allegedly spearphish the credentials of a Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) employee.[219]
    • April 10–11: Papadopoulos learns of Polonskaya’s attempt to send him a text message on March 29 and sends her an email to arrange another meeting. She reponds that she is “back in St. Petersburg” but “would be very pleased to support [Papadopoulos’s] initiatives between our two countries” and “to meet [him] again.” Papadopoulos replies that she should introduce him to “the Russian Ambassador in London” to talk to him or “anyone else you recommend, about a potential foreign policy trip to Russia.” Mifsud is copied on the email exchange. Mifsud writes, “This is already been agreed. I am flying to Moscow on the 18th for a Valdai meeting, plus other meetings at the Duma. We will talk tomorrow.” Polonskaya responds that she has “already alerted my personal links to our conversation and your request,” that “we are all very excited the possibility of a good relationship with Mr. Trump,” and that “[t]he Russian Federation would love to welcome him once his candidature would be officially announced.”[87]:87
    • April 11: Manafort and Konstantin Kilimnik exchange emails about whether recent press coverage of Manafort joining the Trump campaign can be used to make them “whole” with Deripaska. Manafort is in debt to Deripaska for millions of dollars at the time.[26] Kilimnik confirms to Manafort that Deripaska is aware Manafort is on Trump’s campaign team.[132]
    • April 12:
      • Russian hackers use stolen credentials to infiltrate the DCCC’s computer network and install malware.[132]
      • Papadopoulos and Mifsud meet at the Andaz Hotel in London.[87]:88
    • April 16: A rally protesting the death of Freddie Gray attracts large crowds in Baltimore. The IRA’s Blacktivist Facebook group promotes and organizes the event, including reaching out to local activists.[244]
    • April 18:
      • While in Moscow, Mifsud introduces Papadopoulos to Ivan Timofeev via email. Timodeev is the program director of the Kremlin-sponsored Valdai Discussion Club and a member of the Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC). Papadopoulos and Timofeev communicate for months over email and Skype about potential meetings between Russian government officials and members of the Trump campaign. Later records indicate that Timofeev discussed Papadopoulos with former Russian Foreign Minister Igor S. Ivanov.[220][213][210][87]:88 In Agust 2017, Papadopoulos tells Mueller’s team that he believed at the time his conversations with Timofeev were monitored.[87]:88
      • Russian hackers break into the DNC’s computers.[132]
    • April 19:
      • Russian hackers create a fictitious online persona, “Carrie Feehan”, to register the domain, paid for in bitcoin, to release stolen documents.[219][132]
      • The IRA purchases its first pro-Trump ad through its “Tea Party News” Instagram account. The Instagram ad asks users to upload photos with the hashtag #KIDS4TRU to “make a patriotic team of young Trump supporters.”[245]
    • April 20: Sater texts Cohen asking when he is going to travel to Moscow.[87]:77
    • April 21: A staffer at the Center for the National Interest photographs a detailed outline of the foreign policy speech Trump was scheduled to deliver on April 27, which was sitting on the desk of Simes, the Center’s president. The House Intelligence Committee would later investigate Simes’ involvement in drafting the speech.[246]
    • April 22: Ivan Timofeev thanks Papadopoulos “for an extensive talk” and proposes meeting in London or Moscow.[132]
    • April 23: A small group of white-power demonstrators hold a rally they call “Rock Stone Mountain” at Stone Mountain Park near Stone Mountain, Georgia. They are confronted by a large group of protesters, and some violent clashes ensue. The counterprotest was heavily promoted by IRA accounts on Tumblr, Twitter, and Facebook, and the IRA website The IRA uses its Blacktivist account on Facebook to reach out, to no avail, to activist and academic Barbara Williams Emerson, the daughter of Hosea Williams, to help promote the protests. Afterward, RT blames anti-racist protesters for violence and promotes two videos shot at the event.[243]
    • April 25:
      • Timofeev emails Papadopoulos that he spoke “to Igor Ivanov[,] the President ofRIAC and former Foreign Minister of Russia,” and relays Ivanov’s advice on how best to arrange a “Moscow visit.”[87]:88
      • Before the second Mifsud meeting, Papadopoulos emails Stephen Miller, informing him that “[t]he Russian government has an open invitation by Putin for Mr. Trump to meet him when he is ready” and that “[t]he advantage of being in London is that these governments tend to speak a bit more openly in ‘neutral’ cities.”[220][132][87]:89
      • Papadopoulos meets Mifsud in London again at the Andaz Hotel. Mifsud claims that he has learned that Russians are in possession of thousands of stolen emails that may be politically damaging to Clinton.[247][213][220][87]:88–89 This is the first of at least two times the Trump campaign is told Russia has “dirt” on Hillary Clinton. Two months later the Russian hacking is publicly revealed.[132]
      • Foresman emails Graff to remind her of his March 31 email seeking a meeting with Trump, Lewandowski, or another appropriate person.[87]:79–80
    • April 27:
      • Trump, Sessions and Jared Kushner greet Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington D.C. This contact is repeatedly omitted from testimony or denied.[217][248][249] Afterward, Kislyak reports the conversation with Sessions to Moscow.[250] Kushner is the first to publicly admit the Kislyak meeting took place in his prepared statement for Senate investigators on July 24, 2017.[251] Also in attendance are the ambassadors from Italy and Singapore, who are major players in the upcoming sale of stakes in Rosneft.[2]:124
      • Trump speaks at the Mayflower Hotel at the invitation of The National Interest, the magazine of the Center for the National Interest.[116] He delivers a speech that calls for improved relations between the US and Russia. The speech was edited by Papadopoulos[213] and crafted with the assistance of Simes[2]:126 and Richard Burt.[252] Burt is a board member of the Center for the National Interest and a lobbyist for Gazprom.[253] Papadopoulos brings the speech to the attention of Mifsud and Polonskaya, and tells Timofeev that it should be considered “the signal to meet”.[213] Simes later moves to Moscow.[254]
      • Papadopoulos emails Miller that he has “some interesting messages coming in from Moscow about a trip when the time is right.”[220]
      • Papadopoulos tells Lewandowski via email that he has “been receiving a lot of calls over the last month about Putin wanting to host [Trump] and the team when the time is right.”[210][87]:89
      • Graff sends Foresman an apology and forwards his March 31 and April 26 emails to Lewandowski.[87]:80
    • Late April: The DNC’s IT department notices suspicious computer activity. Within 24 hours, the DNC contacts the FBI, and hires a private cybersecurity firm, CrowdStrike, to investigate.[255]
    • April 30: Foresman sends Graff another email reminding her of his meeting requests on March 31 and April 26. He suggests an alternative meeting with Trump Jr. or Eric Trump so that he can tell them information that “should be conveyed to [the candidate] personally or [to] someone [the candidate] absolutely trusts”.[87]:80
    • May:
      • CrowdStrike determines that sophisticated adversaries—denominated Cozy Bear and Fancy Bear—are responsible for the DNC hack. Fancy Bear, in particular, is suspected of affiliation with Russia’s Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU).[256]
      • Erickson contacts Trump campaign advisor Rick Dearborn. In an email headed “Kremlin Connection”, Erickson seeks the advice of Dearborn and Sessions about how to arrange a meeting between Trump and Putin. Erickson suggests making contact at the NRA’s annual convention in Kentucky. The communication refers to Torshin, who is under instructions to contact the Trump campaign.[257][258]
      • At Butina’s urging, Christian activist Rick Clay emails Dearborn with the subject “Russian backdoor overture and dinner invite”[259] offering a meeting between Trump and Torshin.[260] Dearborn, then Sessions’s Chief of Staff, sends an email mentioning a person from West Virginia seeking to connect Trump campaign members with Putin. Dearborn appears “skeptical” of the meeting request.[261] Jared Kushner rejects the request. Torshin and Trump Jr. later meet and speak at the NRA convention.[260]
      • Papadopoulos travels to Greece and meets with Greece’s president Prokopios Pavlopoulos, defense minister Panos Kammenos, foreign minister Nikos Kotzias, and a former prime minister. Putin makes an official visit to Athens during Papadopoulos’s trip.[262]
      • Michael Caputo arranges a meeting in Miami with Stone, Florida-based Russian Henry Oknyansky (a.k.a. “Henry Greenberg”), and Ukrainian Alexei Rasin.[87]:61[263] Rasin claims to have evidence showing Clinton was involved in laundering hundreds of thousands of dollars through Rasin’s companies.[87]:61 Stone turns down the offer, telling them that Trump won’t pay for opposition research.[87]:61[263] In June 2018, after many repeated denials, Stone finally admits to knowingly meeting with a Russian national in 2016 when asked about this meeting by The Washington Post.[263] In May 2018, Caputo tells Mueller’s team that he did not attend the meeting, did not know what Oknyansky was offering, and did not know payment was asked for until Stone told him later.[87]:61 In July 2018, Oknyansky tells Mueller’s team that Rasin was motivated by money, and that Caputo attended the meeting.[87]:61 According to the Mueller Report, Mueller’s team is unable to find any evidence that Clinton ever did any business with Rasin.[87]:61
      • A new American shell company, “Silver Valley Consulting”, is set up by Russian-born accountant Ilya Bykov for Aras Agalarov.[264]
      • Patten and Kilimnik write a letter for Lyovochkin to use in lobbiying a “high-ranking member” of the State Department. In August 2018, Patten pleads guilty to failing to register as a foreign agent for this work.[114]
    • May 2:
      • A second rally is held in Buffalo, New York, protesting the death of India Cummings. Like the April 4 rally, the event is heavily promoted by the IRA’s Blacktivist Facebook account, including attempted outreach to local activists.[243]
      • Graff forwards Foresman’s April 30 email to Stephen Miller.[87]:80
    • May 4:
      • Timofeev emails Papadopoulos that his colleagues from the ministry “are open for cooperation.”[132] Papadopoulos forwards the email to Lewandowski and asks whether this is “something we want to move forward with.”[87]:89
      • Manafort meets with Kilimnik.[132]
      • Starting 4 May,[265] and continuing through September, a pair of servers owned by Alfa-Bank look up the Trump Organization’s domain on a server housed by Listrak and administered by Cendyn more than 2,000 times. Alfa-Bank performed the most lookups during this period, followed by Spectrum Health, and then Heartland Payment Systems with 76 lookups; beyond that no other visible entity made more than two.[266]
      • Trump becomes the only remaining candidate for the Republican presidential nomination when John Kasich withdraws.[267]
      • Sater texts Cohen asking when he will be traveling to Moscow. He writes that he set expectations in Russia that it would probably be after the convention. Cohen responds that he expects to travel before the convention, and that Trump will travel after he becomes the nominee.[87]:77[200][154]
    • May 5:
      • Papadopoulos forwards Timofeev’s email to Clovis,[132][87]:89 who replies, “[t]here are legal issues we need to mitigate, meeting with foreign officials as a private citizen.”[210]
      • Sater texts Cohen that Peskov would like to invite him to the St. Petersburg Forum June 16–19 and possibly meet Putin or Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. He continues, “He said anything you want to discuss including dates and subjects are on the table to discuss.”[87]:77[200][154]
    • May 6:
      • Sater texts Cohen to confirm his travel to Moscow around June 16–19. Cohen replies, “[w]orks for me.”[87]:77
      • In London, during a night of heavy drinking, Papadopoulos tells Australian ambassador Alexander Downer that the Russians have politically damaging material on Clinton. After WikiLeaks releases the DNC emails two months later, Australian officials pass this information to American officials, causing the FBI to open a counterintelligence investigation into the Trump campaign.[132][87]:89
    • May 8: Timofeev proposes connecting Papadopoulos with another Russian official.[132]
    • May 10: Dearborn receives an email about arranging a back-channel meeting between Trump and Putin with the subject line “Kremlin Connection.” It is sent from a conservative operative who says Russia wants to use the NRA’s convention to make “first contact.”[132]
    • May 14: Papadopoulos tells Lewandowski the Russians are interested in hosting Trump.[132]
    • May 15: David Klein, a distant relative of Trump Organization lawyer Jason Greenblatt, emails Clovis about a possible campaign meeting with Chief Rabbi of Russia Berel Lazar. Klein writes that he contacted Lazar in February about a possible meeting between Trump and Putin and that Lazar was “a very close confidante of Putin.” Later Klein and Greenblatt meet with Lazar at Trump Tower.[87]:90
    • May 16:
      • Page floats the idea with the campaign team of Trump going to Russia in instead of Page “to raise the temperature a little bit.[132]
      • Dearborn receives a similar second proposal, which he forwards to Kushner, Manafort and Rick Gates. Both efforts (to arrange a back-channel meeting between Trump and Putin) appear to involve Alexander Torshin, who was instructed to make contact with the Trump campaign.[132] Kushner rebuffs the proposal.[132]
    • May 19:
      • Manafort becomes Trump’s campaign chairman and chief strategist.[268]
      • Mother Jones reports that before Trump launched his campaign in 2015, Lewandowski and other political advisors suggested to Trump that they follow standard practice and hire someone to perform opposition research on him. Trump refused.[269]
    • May 19–22: The NRA annual conference is held in Louisville, Kentucky. Trump and Trump Jr. attend.[270][271][272][273] Trump Jr. meets briefly with Torshin and Butina on May 20.[132]
    • May 21:
      • Papadopoulos forwards Timofeev’s May 4 email to Manafort stressing the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)’s desire to meet with Trump, writing, “Russia has been eager to meet Mr. Trump for quite sometime and have been reaching out to me to discuss.”[87]:89–90 Manafort shoots down the idea in an email to Rick Gates,[136][210] with a note: “Let[‘]s discuss. We need someone to communicate that DT is not doing these trips. It should be someone low level in the Campaign so as not to send any signal.”[132][87]:90
      • Two competing rallies are held in Houston to alternately protest against and defend the recently opened Library of Islamic Knowledge at the Islamic Da’wah Center. The “Stop Islamization of Texas” rally is organized by the Facebook group “Heart of Texas”. The Facebook posting for the event encourages participants to bring guns. A spokesman for the group converses with the Houston Press via email but declines to give a name. The other rally, “Save Islamic Knowledge”, is organized by the Facebook group “United Muslims of America” for the same time and location. Both Facebook groups are later revealed to be IRA accounts.[274][275]
    • May 22: Politico reports on Trump’s past associations and dealings with the American Mafia and other criminal figures, including Sater.[276][154]
    • May 25:
      • The Westboro Baptist Church holds its annual protest of Lawrence High School graduation ceremonies in Lawrence, Kansas. The “LGBT United” Facebook group organizes counterprotesters to confront the Westboro protest, including by placing an ad on Facebook and contacting local people. About a dozen people show up. Lawrence High School students do not participate because they are “skeptical” of the counterprotest organizers. LGBT United is an IRA account that appears to have been created specifically for this event.[277]
      • Thousands of DNC emails are stolen.[132]
    • May 26: The Associated Press reports that Trump has secured enough delegates to become the presumptive Republican nominee.[139]
    • May 27: At a rally, Trump calls Putin “a strong leader.”[132]
    • May 27–28: Putin makes an official visit to Greece and meets with government leaders. His visit overlaps with a trip to Greece by Papadopoulos.[262][278]
    • May 29: The IRA hires an American to pose in front of the White House holding a sign that says, “Happy 55th Birthday, Dear Boss.” “Boss” is a reference to Russian oligarch Yevgeny Prigozhin.[97][98]

    June 2016[edit]

    • June:
      • Around this time, the conspirators charged in the July 2018 indictment stage and release tens of thousands of stolen emails and documents using fictitious online personas, including “DCLeaks” and “Guccifer 2.0”.[279]
      • The FBI sends a warning to states about “bad actors” probing state voter-registration databases and systems to seek vulnerabilities; investigators believe Russia is responsible.[280]
      • Fusion GPS hires Steele to research Trump’s activities in Russia. A resultant 35-page document, later known as the Trump–Russia dossier or Steele dossier, is published on January 10, 2017, by BuzzFeed News.[281]
      • A former GRU officer arranges for Felix Sater and Michael Cohen to attend the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, which Putin regularly attends. Sater wants to use the trip to push forward the Moscow Trump Tower deal. Cohen cancels at the last minute. Sater does not attend the forum.[282]
    • Early June:
      • At a closed-door gathering of foreign policy experts visiting with the Prime Minister of India, Page hails Putin as stronger and more reliable than Obama and touts the positive effect a Trump presidency would have on U.S.–Russia relations.[283]
      • Before traveling to New York to translate at the June 9 Trump Tower meeting, Kaveladze contacts Roman Beniaminov, a close associate of Emin Agalarov, to find out why Kushner, Manafort, and Trump Jr. were invited to a meeting ostensibly about the Magnitsky Act. Beniaminov tells Kaveladze that he heard Goldstone and Agalarov discuss “dirt” on Clinton. In November 2017, Kaveladze’s lawyer tells The Daily Beast that Beniaminov was Kaveladze’s only source of information about the meeting.[284]
    • June 1:
      • Papadopoulos emails Lewandowski asking whether he wants to have a call about a Russia visit and whether “we were following up with it.”[87]:90 Lewandowski refers him to Clovis.[132][87]:90 Papadopoulos emails Clovis about more interest from the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to set up a Trump meeting in Russia.[132][87]:90 He writes, “I have the Russian MFA asking me if Mr. Trump is interested in visiting Russia at some point.”[285][286] He continues that he “[w]anted to pass this info along to you for you to decide what’s best to do with it and what message I should send (or to ignore).”[87]:90
      • The IRA plans a Manhattan rally called “March for Trump” and buys Facebook ads promoting the event.[97][98]
    • June 1–2: Deripaska and Anton Inyutsyn, the Russian Deputy Minister of Energy, attend the Clean Energy Ministerial in San Francisco, California. Deripaska also visits UC Berkeley. The trip coincides with nearby Trump rallies in Sacramento and San Jose.[287]
    • June 3:
      • Aras Agalarov is told that the Russian government wants to give the Trump campaign damaging information about Clinton.[132]
      • Goldstone emails Trump Jr. offering, on behalf of Emin Agalarov, to meet an alleged Russian government official who “would incriminate Hillary and her dealings with Russia and would be very useful to your father”, as “part of Russia and its government’s support for Mr. Trump.” Trump Jr. responded 17 minutes later:[288][289] “If it’s what you say I love it especially later in the summer,” and schedules the meeting. Goldstone also offers to relay the information to Trump through his assistant.[290] This is the second time a Trump campaign official was told of “dirt” on Clinton.[132]
      • $3.3 million began moving between Aras Agalarov and Kaveladze, a longtime Agalarov employee once investigated for money laundering.[288]
    • June 4: The IRA email account sends news releases about the “March for Trump” rally to New York City media outlets.[97][98]
    • June 5: The IRA contacts a Trump campaign volunteer to provide signs for the “March for Trump” rally.[97][98]
    • June 6:
      • Hillary Clinton becomes the presumptive Democratic nominee.
      • Trump Jr. calls two blocked numbers at Trump Tower.[291] According to CNN, the two people Trump Jr. called were Nascar CEO Brian France and businessman Howard Lorber.[292]
      • At a primary night rally in New York, Trump promises a speech discussing information about Clinton. Trump says “I am going to give a major speech on probably Monday of next week [June 13], and we are going to be discussing all of the things that have taken place with the Clintons”.[293]
      • Goldstone follows up with Trump Jr. about when Jr. can “talk with Emin by phone about this Hillary info.” Trump Jr. calls Emin.[132] Phone records show Trump Jr. called a blocked number before and after calls to Emin.[132]
    • June 6–7: Trump Jr. and Emin Agalarov discuss setting up their June 9 meeting in three phone calls.[294]
    • June 8: The DCLeaks website comes online.[219]
    • June 9: Kushner, Manafort and Trump Jr. meet in Trump Tower with Goldstone, Russian attorney Natalia Veselnitskaya,[295] Russian-American lobbyist Rinat Akhmetshin,[296] Kaveladze of Aras Agalarov’s Crocus Group,[297] and translator Anatoli Samochornov.[298][299] Veselnitskaya is best known for lobbying against the Magnitsky Act, an American law that blacklists suspected Russian human rights abusers.[300] Trump Jr. later acknowledges that he asked Veselnitskaya for damaging information about the Clinton Foundation and says she had none.[301] Samochornov, Kaveladze, and Akhmetshin later tell the Senate Judiciary Committee that Trump Jr. told Veselnitskaya to come back after they won the election.[302][299] Trump Jr. calls a blocked number before (June 6) and after the meeting. Trump spends the day at Trump Tower, where the private residence has a blocked number, and holds no public events.[291]
    • June 9–14: Sater repeatedly tries to get Cohen to confirm his trip to Russia.[154]
    • June 11–12: The DNC expels Russian hackers from its servers. Some of the hackers had been accessing the DNC network for over a year.[303]
    • June 12: On ITV, Assange tells Robert Peston’ on his television show Peston on Sunday that emails related to Clinton are “pending publication” and says, “WikiLeaks has a very good year ahead.”[304][305][87]:52
    • June 14:
      • The DNC publicly alleges that they have been hacked by Russian state-backed hackers.[304][303] Following this news, a small group of politically diverse prominent computer scientists scattered across the US, including a member Dexter Filkins calls “Max” in his October 2018 New Yorker article, begin combing the Domain Name System (DNS).[266]
      • Sater meets Cohen in the Trump Tower lobby. Cohen tells him he will not be traveling to Russia (two days before planned departure).[154][306]
      • The GRU uses its @dcleaks_ persona to reach out to WikiLeaks and offer to coordinate the release of sensitive information about Clinton, including financial documents.[307][87]:45
    • Mid June: Shortly after the DNC announced that it had been hacked, the RNC informs the FBI that some Republican campaign email accounts hosted by Smartech have been hacked. Compromised accounts include the campaign committees of “Senator John McCain, Senator Lindsey Graham, […] Representative Robert Hurt[,] [s]everal state GOP organizations, Republican PACs, and campaign consultants.” Approximately 300 emails from May through October 2015 are eventually posted on[308][87]:41
    • June 15:
      • “Guccifer 2.0” (GRU) claims credit for the DNC hacking and posts some of the stolen material to a website. CrowdStrike stands by its “findings identifying two separate Russian intelligence-affiliated adversaries present in the DNC network in May 2016.”[309]
      • Gawker publishes an opposition research document on Trump that was stolen from the DNC. “Guccifer 2.0” sent the file to Gawker.[219][310]
      • House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy and House Speaker Paul Ryan meet separately with Ukrainian Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman at the Capitol. Groysman describes to them how the Kremlin is financing populist politicians in Eastern Europe to damage democratic institutions. McCarthy and Ryan have a private meeting afterwards with GOP leaders that is secretly recorded. Toward the end of their conversation, after laughing at the DNC hacking, McCarthy says, “there’s two people, I think, Putin pays: Rohrabacher and Trump…[laughter]…swear to God.” Ryan then tells everyone to keep this conversation secret. A transcript of the recording becomes public a year later.[311][312]
    • June 19: After communicating with the MFA via email and Skype, Papadopoulos tells Lewandowski by email that the MFA is interested in meeting with a “campaign rep” if Trump can’t meet with them. Papadopoulos offers to go in an unofficial capacity.[285][286][87]:90
    • June 20:
      • Aras Agalarov wires more than $19.5 million to his account at a bank in New York.[302]
      • Trump fires Lewandowski.[313] Manafort becomes campaign manager.[314]
    • June 22: Wikileaks reaches out to “Guccifer 2.0” via Twitter. They ask “Guccifer 2.0” to send them material because it will have a bigger impact if they publish it. They also specifically ask for material on Clinton they can publish before the convention.[219]
    • June 23:
      • The United Kingdom passes a referendum to leave the European Union.[315]
      • The IRA persona “Matt Skiber” contacts an American to recruit for the “March for Trump” rally.[97][98]
      • Russian-American Simon Kukes donates $100,000 to the Trump Victory fund. In 2017, his 2016 political donations become a subject of the Mueller investigation.[212]
      • GRU hackers successfully use an SQL injection attack to breach servers belonging to the Illinois State Board of Elections and steal voter registration data.[316][317][87]:50
    • June 24: The IRA group “United Muslims of America” buys Facebook ads for the “Support Hillary, Save American Muslims” rally.[97][98]
    • June 25:
      • The IRA’s “March for Trump” rally occurs.[97][98]
      • The IRA Facebook group LGBT United organizes a candlelight vigil for the Pulse nightclub shooting victims in Orlando, Florida.[318][319]
    • June 29: Goldstone emails Trump campaign social media director Dan Scavino about promoting Trump on VKontakte. He says the email is a follow-up to his recent conversation with Trump Jr. and Manafort.[199]
    • Summer:
      • Papadopoulos is approached via LinkedIn by American-Belarussian Sergei Millian of the Russian-American Chamber of Commerce. They meet repeatedly in Manhattan. Millian offers to start an energy business together, to be financed by Russian billionaires “who are not under sanctions”. Millian also claims that one Russian billionaire would consider the possibility of opening a Trump hotel in Moscow. Papadopoulos does not follow up.[213]
      • IRA employees use the stolen identities of four Americans to open PayPal and bank accounts to act as conduits for funding their activities in the United States.[97][98]
      • The FBI applies for a FISA warrant to monitor communications of four Trump campaign officials. The FISA Court rejects the application, asking the FBI to narrow its scope.[320] A warrant on Carter Page alone is granted in October 2016.[58]

    July 2016[edit]

    • July:
      • The IRA’s translator project grows to over 80 employees.[97][98]
      • Carter Page makes a five-day trip to Moscow.[321] The Steele dossier alleges that in July, Page secretly met Rosneft chairman Igor Sechin in Moscow, together with a “senior Kremlin Internal Affairs official, DIVYEKIN”, that Sechin offered Trump a 19% stake in Rosneft (worth about $11 billion) in exchange for lifting the sanctions against Russia after his election,[322][323] and that Page confirmed, on Trump’s “full authority”, that he intended to lift the sanctions.[324][325][326]
    • July 5:
      • At his London office, Steele reveals to an FBI agent from Rome some of his findings that indicate a wide-ranging Russian conspiracy to elect Trump.[213][327]
      • “United Muslims of America”, an IRA group, orders posters with fake Clinton quotes promoting Sharia Law. The posters are ordered for the “Support Hillary, Save American Muslims” rally they are organizing.[97][98]
    • July 6:
      • “Guccifer 2.0” releases another cache of DNC documents and sends copies to The Hill.[328][329]
      • WikiLeaks asks “Guccifer 2.0” via Twitter direct messaging to provide any information related to Clinton they may have.[87]:45
    • July 6–10: The IRA’s “Don’t Shoot” Facebook group and affiliated “Don’t Shoot Us” website try to organize a protest outside the St. Paul, Minnesota, police headquarters on July 10 in response to the July 6 fatal police shooting of Philando Castile. Some local activists become suspicious of the event because St. Paul police were not involved in the shooting: Castile was shot by a St. Anthony police officer in nearby Falcon Heights. Local activists contact Don’t Shoot. After being pressed on who they are and who supports them, Don’t Shoot agrees to move the protest to the St. Anthony police headquarters. The concerned local activists investigate further and urge protesters not to participate after deciding Don’t Shoot is a “total troll job.” Don’t Shoot organizers eventually relinquish control of the event to local organizers, who subsequently decline to accept any money from Don’t Shoot.[330][331]
    • July 7:
      • In a lecture at the New Economic School in Moscow,[332] Page criticizes American foreign policy, saying that many of the mistakes spoiling relations between the US and Russia “originated in my own country.”[333] Page had received permission from the Trump campaign to make the trip.[334]
      • In an email exchange using his official Trump campaign email address, Manafort asks Kilimnik to forward an offer to provide “private briefings” to Deripaska.[335][336]
    • July 8: Carter Page emails Trump campaign officials about his presentation at the New Economic School. He describes meeting Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich.[337] He says Dvorkovich “expressed strong support for Mr. Trump and a desire to work together toward devising better solutions in response to the vast range of current international problems.”[338]
    • July 9:
      • The Washington Post reports that Trump is considering Flynn as his running mate, with support from Senator Jeff Sessions.[339] Trump eventually selects Mike Pence, Governor of Indiana.
      • The “Support Hillary, Save American Muslims” rally occurs in Washington, D.C. The rally is organized by the IRA group “United Muslims of America.”[97][98]
    • July 10: A Black Lives Matter protest rally is held in Dallas. A “Blue Lives Matter” counterprotest is held across the street. The Blue Lives Matter protest is organized by the “Heart of Texas” Facebook group, controlled by the IRA.[340][318][275]
    • July 11-12:
      • FBI informant Stefan Halper has an initial encounter with Carter Page at a London symposium.[341] A former federal law enforcement official tells The New York Times the encounter was a coincidence, rather than at the FBI’s direction.[342]
      • Papadopoulos and fellow campaign foreign policy advisor Walid Phares exchange emails discussing the upcoming Transatlantic Parliamentary Group on Counterterrorism (TAG) conference, of which Phares is also co-secretary general. In the email chain, Phares advises Papadopoulos that other summit attendees “are very nervous about Russia. So be aware.”[87]:91
    • July 12:
      • An IRA group buys ads on Facebook for the “Down with Hillary” rally in New York City.[97][98]
      • The Illinois State Board of Elections discovers some of its servers have been hacked and closes the security hole used to compromise the systems.[316][317]
    • July 13:
      • A hacker or group calling themselves “Guccifer 2.0” releases over 10,000 names from the DNC in two spreadsheets and a list of objectionable quotes from Sarah Palin.[329]
      • Kukes donates $49,000 to the Trump Victory fund. In 2017, his 2016 political donations become a subject of the Mueller investigation.[212]
      • The Illinois State Board of Elections takes its website offline.[316][317]
    • July 14: “Guccifer 2.0” sends Assange an encrypted 1 GB file containing stolen DNC emails, and Assange confirms that he received it. Wikileaks publishes the file’s contents on July 22.[307][87]:46
    • July 16:
      • The IRA’s Blacktivist group organizes a rally in Chicago to honor Sandra Bland on the first anniversary of her death. The rally is held in front of the Chicago Police Department’s Homan Square building. Participants pass around petitions calling for a Civilian Police Accountability Council ordinance.[343][344]
      • Papadopoulos, Clovis, and Phares attend the TAG conference. Contemporaneous handwritten notes in Papadopoulos’s journal show that he, Clovis, and Phares discuss potential September meetings with representatives of the “office of Putin” in London. The notes say they will attend as unofficial campaign representatives. Later Clovis tells a grand jury that he does not recall attending the TAG conference, although a photograph from the conference shows him seated next to Papadopoulos.[87]:91
    • July 18: “Guccifer 2.0” dumps a new batch of documents from the DNC servers, including personal information of 20,000 Republican donors and opposition research on Trump.[345]Further information: 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak
    • July 18–21: Republican Convention in Cleveland[346]
      • Nigel Farage encounters Stone and Alex Jones at a restaurant. The next day, Stone contacts Manafort and suggests a meeting between Trump and Farage. Manafort responds that he will pass on the request.[315]
      • July 18:
        • Kislyak attends the convention, meeting Page and J. D. Gordon;[1] as Trump’s foreign policy advisers, they stress that he would like to improve relations with Russia.[347] Sessions speaks with Kislyak at a Heritage Foundation event.[1][145]
        • Gordon lobbies to remove arms sales to Ukraine from the Republican platform, citing concerns over conflict escalation in Donbass.[348][349] In December 2017, Diana Denman, a Republican delegate who supported the weapons sale, says that Trump directed Gordon to weaken that position.[350]
      • July 21:
        • Trump formally accepts the Republican nomination.[351]
        • Farage and Andy Wigmore encounter staffers for Mississippi Governor Phil Bryant at the bar in the Hilton Hotel. A staffer invites Wigmore and Farage to Mississippi.[315]
    • July 19:
      • Steele files a dossier memo alleging that during his Moscow trip, Page secretly met Rosneft chairman Igor Sechin, together with a “senior Kremlin Internal Affairs official, DIVYEKIN”, that Sechin offered Trump a 19% stake in Rosneft (worth about $11 billion) in exchange for lifting the sanctions against Russia after his election, and that Page confirmed, on Trump’s “full authority”, that he intended to lift the sanctions.[321][322][323][324][325][326]
      • The Illinois State Board of Elections informs the Illinois Attorney General (IAG) and the Illinois General Assembly of the breach. The IAG notifies the FBI, which brings in the Department of Homeland Security to help investigate.[316][317]
    • July 21–August 12: The Illinois State Board of Elections brings its website back online. The GRU attacks the system five times per second before giving up on August 12.[316][317]
    • July 22: WikiLeaks publishes 20,000 emails from seven key DNC officials. The emails show them disparaging Bernie Sanders and favoring Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential primaries.[352]
    • July 23: The IRA-organized “Down with Hillary” rally is held in New York City. The agency sends 30 news releases to media outlets using the email address[97][98]
    • July 24:
      • DNC Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz is forced to resign because of the WikiLeaks email publication.[353]
      • Appearing on This Week, Manafort denies there are any links between him, Trump, or the “campaign and Putin and his regime”.[354]
    • July 25–28: Democratic Convention in Philadelphia.[355]
    • July 25:
      • Based on assessments from cybersecurity firms, the DNC and the Clinton campaign say that Russian intelligence operators have hacked their e-mails and forwarded them to WikiLeaks.[356]
      • Stone emails his associate Jerome Corsi, “Get to (Assange) [a]t Ecuadorian Embassy in London and get the pending (WikiLeaks) emails”.[357] Corsi later passes this along to Ted Malloch, a conservative author in London.[357]
    • July 26:
      • Trump denies having any investments in Russia.[154][358]
      • The Australian government informs the U.S. government of Papadopoulos’s May 6 interactions with their ambassador in London. The FBI opens its investigation of potential coordination between Russia and the Trump campaign five days later.[87]:89[359]
    • July 27:
      • On or about this date “the Conspirators attempted after hours to spearphish for the first time email accounts at a domain hosted by a third-party provider and used by Clinton’s personal office. At or around the same time, they also targeted seventy-six email addresses at the domain for the Clinton Campaign.”[360][361]
      • Trump calls for Russia to give Clinton’s missing emails to the FBI. His tweet is before his statements on the matter to the press.[362]
      • Trump tells a CBS affiliate in Miami, “I have nothing to do with Russia. Nothing to do. I never met Putin. I have nothing to do with Russia whatsoever.” This contradicts his many claims since 2013 to have met Putin and done business in Russia.[62]
      • At a news conference, Trump says he “hopes” Russia can find Clinton’s missing emails. The remark triggers a backlash from media and politicians who criticize Trump’s “urging a foreign adversary to conduct cyberespionage” against his political opponent.[363][364] Trump responds that he was being “sarcastic”.[365] A 2018 indictment alleges Russian intelligence officers began a spearphishing attack on non-public Clinton campaign email accounts that night,[366][87]:49 In April–May 2018, Flynn tells Mueller’s team that after this event, Trump repeatedly asks “individuals affiliated with his Campaign[sic]” to find Clinton’s emails.[87]:62
    • July 28: Clinton formally accepts the Democratic nomination.[367]
    • July 29:
      • Kilimnik sends Manafort an email requesting to meet in person so he can brief Manafort on a meeting he had “with the guy who gave you your biggest black caviar jar several years ago”, saying he has important messages to deliver from this person.[26] In September 2017, The Washington Post reports that investigators believe Kilimnik and Manafort used the term “black caviar” in communications as a reference to expected payments from former clients.[368] In December 2018, TIME magazine reveals that the names “Victor” and “V.” mentioned in the emails between Kilimnik and Manafort refer to Deripaska aide and former Russian intelligence officer Commander Viktor A. Boyarkin.[369]
      • Cambridge Analytica employee Emily Cornell sends an email to people working with the pro-Trump Make America Number 1 super PAC, which is funded by Robert and Rebekah Mercer. Cornell notes Cambridge Analytica’s work for the super PAC and suggests they capitalize on the recently released DNC emails and any Clinton emails that may be stolen as suggested by Trump on July 27.[370]
    • July 31:
      • The FBI starts a counter-intelligence investigation into Russian interference, including possible coordination between Trump associates and Russia.[371][372] The investigation is issued the code name “Crossfire Hurricane.”[373]
      • In an interview on This Week, Trump tells George Stephanopoulos that people in his campaign were responsible for changing the GOP’s platform stance on Ukraine, but that he was not personally involved.[374]
      • Kilimnik again emails Manafort to confirm their dinner meeting in New York, saying he needs two hours “because it is a long caviar story to tell.”[26]
      • Stone emails Jerome Corsi telling him to use Ted Malloch as an intermediary with Assange. Malloch tells Corsi he doesn’t have a relationship with Assange and suggests using people close to Farage instead.[375][376][87]:55
    • July 31 – August 2: The FBI sends two agents to London who interview Downer about his interactions with Papadopoulos.[373]
    • End July: CIA Director John Brennan, alarmed at intelligence that Russia is trying to “hack” the election, forms a working group of officials from the CIA, FBI, and NSA.[377]

    August 2016[edit]

    • August:
      • Trump donor Rebekah Mercer asks the CEO of Cambridge Analytica whether the company could better organize the Clinton-related emails being released by WikiLeaks.[378]
      • Butina arrives in the U.S. on a student visa to attend American University in Washington, D.C.[379][380]
      • With his lawyer, “Max” reveals data assembled to Eric Lichtblau of the New York Times.[266]
    • August 2:
      • Manafort, Gates, and Kilimnik meet at the Grand Havana Room of 666 Fifth Avenue in New York City.[381] This meeting is considered the “heart” of Mueller’s probe, per February 2019 reporting.[382] Manafort gives Kilimnik polling data at the meeting.[383] Manafort asked Kilimnik to pass the data to pro-Russian Ukrainians Serhiy Lyovochkin and Rinat Akhmetov.[384][385]
      • Corsi writes to Stone: “Word is friend in embassy plans 2 more dumps,” referring to Assange; and “One shortly after I’m back. 2nd in Oct. Impact planned to be very damaging.”[357]
    • August 2–3: The IRA’s “Matt Skiber” persona contacts the real “Florida for Trump” Facebook account. The “T.W.” persona contacts other grassroots groups.[97][98]
    • August 3:
      • Trump Jr., George Nader, Erik Prince, Stephen Miller, and Joel Zamel meet at Trump Jr.’s office in Trump Tower. Nader relays an offer from the leaders of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) to help get Trump elected. Zamel pitches his Israeli company’s services for a multimillion-dollar campaign to manipulate social media. It is not known whether the social media campaign occurred.[386]
      • A private jet carrying Deripaska’s family arrives at Newark Liberty International Airport near New York City a little after midnight New York time and returns to Moscow that afternoon. The trip’s timing is considered suspicious because it is within hours of Manafort’s meeting with Kilimnik. In 2018, a spokesperson for Deripaska confirms the flights and passengers.[387]
    • August 4:
      • Brennan calls his Russian counterpart Alexander Bortnikov, head of the FSB, to warn him against meddling in the presidential election.[377]
      • The IRA’s Facebook account “Stop AI” accuses Clinton of voter fraud during the Iowa Caucuses. They buy ads promoting the post.[97][98]
      • IRA groups buy ads for the “Florida Goes Trump” rallies. The 8,300 people who click on the ads are sent to the Agency’s “Being Patriotic” Facebook page.[97][98]
      • In an InfoWars interview, Stone tells Jones that Assange has proof of wrongdoing by the Clinton Foundation and is ready to release it.[388]
      • Stone sends Sam Nunberg an email in which he claims that he dined with Assange the night before.[388]
    • August 5:
      • Stone writes an article for Breitbart News in which he insists “Guccifer 2.0” hacked the DNC, using statements by “Guccifer 2.0” on Twitter and to The Hill as evidence for his claim. He tries to spin the DNC’s Russia claim as a coverup for their supposed embarrassment over being penetrated by a single hacker.[389] The article leads to “Guccifer 2.0” reaching out to and conversing with Stone via Twitter.[390]
      • In response to questions about Page’s July 7 speech in Moscow, Hope Hicks describes him as an “informal foreign policy adviser [who] does not speak for Mr. Trump or the campaign.”[283]
      • The IRA Twitter account @March_For_Trump hires an actress to play Hillary Clinton in prison garb and someone to build a cage to hold the actress. The actress and cage are to appear at the “Florida Goes Trump” rally in West Palm Beach, Florida on August 20.[97][98]
    • August 6: Assange addresses the Green Party National Convention in Houston by videolink, to discuss the hacked DNC documents published by WikiLeaks.[391] Green candidate Jill Stein later states she does not know why or how this address was arranged.[147]
    • August 8: Stone, speaking in Florida to the Southwest Broward Republican Organization, claims he is in contact with Assange, saying, “I actually have communicated with Assange. I believe his next tranche of his documents pertain to the Clinton Foundation.”[392][389] Stone later claims the communications were through an intermediary.[393]
    • August 9:
      • WikiLeaks denies having communicated with Stone.[394] Privately, Assange tells a core group of WikiLeaks supporters that he is unaware of any communications with Stone.[168]
      • Bloomberg reports that the Spanish Civil Guard believes Torshin assisted the Taganskaya crime syndicate with money laundering through banks in Spain.[395]
    • August 11: The IRA Twitter account @TEN_GOP claims that voter fraud is being investigated in North Carolina.[97][98]
    • August 12:
      • In a #MAGA Podcast, Stone says Assange has all the emails deleted by Huma Abedin and Cheryl Mills.[396]
      • Journalist Emma Best has two simultaneous conversations by Twitter direct message with “Guccifer 2.0” and WikiLeaks. Best tries to negotiate the hosting of stolen DNC emails and documents on WikiLeaks wants Best to act as an intermediary to funnel the material from “Guccifer 2.0” to them. The conversation ends with “Guccifer 2.0” saying he will send the material directly to WikiLeaks.[397]
      • “Guccifer 2.0” releases a cache of documents stolen from the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee.[398]
      • The GRU stops its five-attempts-per-second attack on the Illinois State Board of Elections servers.[316][317]
    • August 12–18: The IRA’s persona “Josh Milton” communicates with Trump Campaign officials via email to request Trump/Pence signs and the phone numbers of campaign affiliates as part of an effort to organize pro-Trump campaign rallies in Florida.[399][87]:35
    • August 13:
      • Twitter and WordPress temporarily suspend Guccifer 2.0’s accounts.[398] Stone calls “Guccifer 2.0” a hero.[400]
      • Russian-American Simon Kukes attends a $25,000-per-ticket Trump fundraising dinner at the home of Woody Johnson in New York. Kukes’s 2016 political donations become a subject of the Mueller investigation.[401][402]
    • August 14: The New York Times reports that Manafort’s name has been found in the Ukrainian “black ledger”. The ledger, belonging to the Ukrainian Party of Regions, shows $12.7 million in undisclosed cash payments to Manafort from 2007 to 2012. Manafort’s lawyer, Richard A. Hibey, says Manafort never received “any such cash payments”.[27] The Associated Press later verifies some of the entries against financial records.[403]
    • August 15:
      • Papadopoulos emails Clovis about requests he received from multiple foreign governments, “even Russia[],” for “closed door workshops/consultations abroad.” He asks if there is still interest for himself, Clovis, and Phares “to go on that trip.” Clovis copies Phares and tells Papadopoulos that he can’t “travel before the election”, wtiting, “I would encourage you [and Walid Phares to] make the trip, if it is feasible.” The trip never occurs.[87]:92[285][286]
      • A Trump campaign county chair contacts the IRA through their phony email accounts to suggest locations for rallies.[97][98]
      • An alleged candidate for Congress contacts Guccifer 2.0 to request information on the candidate’s opponent. Guccifer 2.0 responds with the requested stolen information.[219][87]:43
      • Guccifer 2.0 begins posting information about Florida and Pennsylvania races stolen from the DCCC.[219]
    • August 16:
      • Stone tells Jones that he is in contact with Assange, claiming he has “political dynamite” on Clinton.[404]
      • The IRA buys ads on Instagram for the “Florida Goes Trump” rallies.[97][98]
      • Stone sends “Guccifer 2.0” an article[405] he wrote for The Hill on manipulating the vote count in voting machines.[406] “Guccifer 2.0” responds the next day, “@RogerJStoneJr paying u back”.[400]
    • August 17:
      • Trump is warned in an FBI briefing that foreign adversaries including Russia would likely attempt to infiltrate his campaign. This is Trump’s first classified briefing. Clinton receives a similar briefing in the same month.[407][408][409]
      • Bannon is named Trump campaign CEO.[410]
      • Kellyanne Conway is named Trump campaign manager.[410]
    • August 18:
      • The FBI issues a nationwide “flash alert” warning state election officials about foreign infiltration of election systems in two states, later reported to be Arizona and Illinois. The alert includes technical evidence suggesting Russian responsibility, and urges states to boost their cyberdefenses. Although labeled for distribution only to “NEED TO KNOW recipients,” a copy is leaked to the media.[411]
      • The IRA uses its email account to contact a Trump campaign official in Florida. The email requests campaign support at the forthcoming “Florida Goes Trump” rallies. It is unknown whether the campaign official responded.[97][98]
      • The IRA pays the person they hired to build a cage for a “Florida Goes Trump” rally in West Palm Beach, Florida.[97][98]
    • August 19:
      • Manafort resigns as Trump’s campaign manager.[412]
      • A Trump supporter suggests to the IRA Twitter account “March for Trump” that it contact a Trump campaign official. The official is emailed by the agency’s account.[97]
      • The IRA’s “Matt Skiber” persona contacts another Trump campaign official on Facebook.[97][98]
      • Arron Banks and Andy Wigmore meet with Alexander Yakovenko for lunch. They discuss their upcoming trip to Mississippi and the Trump campaign.[413][315]
      • Volodymyr Ariev, a member of the Ukrainian parliament, formally asks the Prosecutor General of Ukraine to investigate Kilimnik based on media reports of his connections to Viktor Yanukovych and Russian intelligence.[414]
    • August 20: 17 “Florida Goes Trump” rallies are held across Florida. The rallies are organized by Russian trolls from the IRA.[98][415]
    • August 22:
      • Florida GOP campaign advisor Aaron Nevins contacts Guccifer 2.0 and asks for material. Nevins sets up a Dropbox account and “Guccifer 2.0” transfers 2.5 gigabytes of data into it. Nevins analyzes the data, posts the results on his blog,, and sends “Guccifer 2.0” a link. “Guccifer 2.0” forwards the link to Stone.[219][416]
      • “Guccifer 2.0” allegedly sends DCCC material on Black Lives Matter to a reporter, and they discuss how to use it in a story. “Guccifer 2.0” also gives the reporter the password for accessing emails stolen from Clinton’s staff that were posted to “Guccifer 2.0’s” website but had not yet been made public. On August 31, The Washington Examiner publishes a story based on the material the same day the material is released publicly on Guccifer 2.0’s website.[417][219][87]:43
    • August 23: The Smoking Gun reaches out to “Guccifer 2.0” for comment on its contacts with Stone. “Guccifer 2.0” accuses The Smoking Gun of working with the FBI.[400]
    • August 25:
      • Trump names Clovis as a campaign national co-chairman.[418]
      • Banks, Wigmore, and Farage attend a Trump fundraising dinner and participate in a Trump rally in the Mississippi Coliseum. Wigmore and Farage meet Trump for the first time at the dinner. At the rally, Trump introduces Farage to the crowd as “Mr. Brexit.”[413][419][315]
      • Interviewed by Megyn Kelly on the The Kelly File, Assange says that he will not release any damaging information on Trump. He also tells her significant information will be released on Clinton before November.[420]
    • August 26:
      • After Clinton claims that Russian intelligence was behind the leaks, Assange says she is causing “hysteria” about Russia, adding, “The Trump campaign has a lot of things wrong with it, but as far as we can see being Russian agents is not one of them.”[421]
      • Illinois State Board of Elections produces a report on the June–August hacking of their systems by the GRU.[316][317]
    • August 26–27: Frederick Intrater registers several Internet domain names that are variations on the term “alt-right.” The domain names are registered using his name and the name and contact information of his employer, private equity firm Columbus Nova. Intrater is the brother of Columbus Nova CEO Andrew Intrater and a cousin of Vekselberg. Columbus Nova is the American investment arm of Vekselberg’s business empire.[422]
    • August 27:
      • The IRA Facebook group “SecuredBorders” organizes a “Citizens before refugees” protest rally at the City Council Chambers in Twin Falls, Idaho. Only a small number of people show up for the three-hour event, most likely because it is Saturday and the Chambers are closed.[423]
      • Through Assange’s attorney Margaret Ratner Kunstler, the widow of William Kunstler, Randy Credico knows that Wikileaks will release information about the Clinton campaign in the near future and texts Stone that “Julian Assange has kryptonite on Hillary.” Credico continues to update Stone about the upcoming Wikileaks release of numerous emails stolen from Podesta and the Clinton campaign. The emails are released beginning on October 7.[424]
    • August 28: Peter W. Smith sends an encrypted email to an undisclosed list of recipients that includes Trump campaign co-chair Sam Clovis. The email says that after two days of meetings in D.C. on Clinton’s private email server, he determined that the server was hacked by “State-related players” as well as private mercenaries. He writes, “Parties with varying interests, are circling to release ahead of the election.”[87]:63[425]
    • August 29: The Washington Post is the first to report that Illinois discovered in July that its voter registration servers were hacked, and that the user ID and password of an Arizona election official in Gila County was stolen in June. Arizona Secretary of State Michele Reagan shut down the state’s voter registration system for a week but did not find that any state or county systems were compromised.[316][426]
    • August 31:
      • “Guccifer 2.0” leaks campaign documents stolen from House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi’s hacked personal computer.[427][428]
      • An American contacts the IRA’s “Being Patriotic” account about a possible September 11 event in Miami.[97][98]
      • The IRA buys ads for a September 11 rally in New York City.[97][98]
      • Smith sends an email to an undisclosed list of recipients in which he claims KLS Research met with parties who had access to Clinton’s missing emails, including some with “ties and affiliations to Russia”. Mueller’s team is unable to determine whether such meetings occurred or find any evidence that Smith’s team was in contact with Russian hackers.[87]:65
    • Late August: Brennan gives individual briefings to the Gang of Eight on links between the Trump campaign and Russian interference in the election.[429]
    • Late August–Early September:
      • According to December 2018 McClatchy DC reporting, Cohen’s cellphone communicates with cell towers in the vicinity of Prague, and communication intercepts by an Eastern European intelligence agency overhear a Russian conversation that states Cohen is in Prague. If true, it would lend credence to the allegation in the Steele dossier that Cohen traveled to Prague to meet with Russians.[430]
      • August 31 or September 1: FBI informant Stefan Halper meets with Trump advisor Sam Clovis, who stated they talked about China.[341]

    September 2016[edit]

    • September:
      • The Egyptian Embassy in Washington, D.C., reaches out to Papadopoulos expressing Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi’s interest in meeting Trump. With Bannon’s approval, Papadopoulos arranges a meeting between Trump and el-Sisi at the Plaza Hotel in New York City.[136] While the meeting does not appear to relate to campaign contacts with Russia, it highlights that Papadopoulos was more than a “coffee boy”, as Trump campaign officials later claim.[213]
      • The CIA gives a secret briefing to congressional leaders on Russian interference in the election. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell voices doubts about the intelligence.[431]
      • Mifsud hires Mangiante to work for the London Centre of International Law Practice, on Pittella’s recommendation. Papadopoulos, a former employee of the Centre, contacts her via LinkedIn. They begin dating in March 2017.[48]
      • Stone emails Credico to ask Assange for Clinton emails from August 10–30, 2011.[432]
      • The FBI makes a second attempt to recruit Deripaska as an informant on Manafort, the Kremlin, and Russian organized crime in exchange for a U.S. visa.[111]
    • September 2:
      • Lisa Page writes in a text message to Peter Strzok that a meeting at the FBI was set up “because Obama wanted ‘to know everything we are doing’.”[433] She was referring to the FBI investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election, not the Clinton emails investigation, which had been concluded months earlier.[434][433]
      • Peter W. Smith incorporates “KLS Research”, an LLC registered in Delaware, as a vehicle to manage funds raised to pay for the search for Clinton’s emails and “to avoid campaign reporting.”[435][87]:63 KLS is structured as an “independent expenditure group,” which is forbidden by law from coordinating with the Trump campaign.[436] Over $30,000 flows through the company during the campaign.[87]:63
    • September 3: The IRA Facebook group “United Muslims of America” organizes a “Safe Space for Muslim Neighborhood” rally outside the White House, attracting at least 57 people.[437]
    • September 3–5: Wealthy Republican donor Peter W. Smith gathers a team to try to acquire the 30,000 deleted Clinton emails from hackers. He believes Clinton’s private email server was hacked and copies of the emails were stolen.[438] Among the people recruited are former GCHQ information-security specialist Matt Tait,[439] alt-right activist Charles C. Johnson, former Business Insider CTO and alt-right activist Pax Dickinson, “dark web expert” Royal O’Brien, and Jonathan Safron.[440] Tait quickly abandons the team after learning the true purpose of the endeavor.[440] Hackers contacted in the search include “Guccifer 2.0” and Andrew Auernheimer (a.k.a. “weev”).[440] The team finds five groups of hackers claiming to have the emails. Two of the groups are Russian. Flynn is in email contact with the team. Smith commits suicide on May 14, 2017, about ten days after telling the story to The Wall Street Journal but before the story is published in June.[438]
    • September 4–5: At the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit, Obama confronts Putin about Russian cyber attacks, telling him to stop. Putin explains Russia’s stance on the issue.[441]
    • September 8:
      • Smith transfers $9,500 from KLS Research to his personal account, then withdraws $4,900 of it in cash and writes checks for the remaining amount. In August 2018, BuzzFeed News reports that the FBI suspects the money was used to pay hackers.[442]
      • Sessions meets with Kislyak a third time, in Sessions’s office;[1] he later says they discussed Ukraine and terrorism.[443]
    • September 9:
      • Papadopoulos contacts deputy communications director Bryan Lanza about a request from Interfax for an interview with Ksenia Baygarova. Lanza approves the interview.[136]
      • The IRA sends money to its American groups to fund the September 11 rally in Miami, and to pay the actress who portrayed Clinton at the West Palm Beach, Florida, rally.[97][98]
      • Smith circulates a document claiming his Clinton email search initiative is being performed in coordination with the Trump campaign “to the extent permitted as an independent expenditure organization.” The document lists Flynn, Clovis, Bannon, and Conway as involved campaign members, and Corsi under “Independent Groups/Organizations/Individuals”. Later, Mueller’s team is unable to confirm the active participation of Bannon and Conway.[87]:63–64[425]
    • Mid-September: Papadopoulos approaches British government officials asking for a meeting with senior ministers. He is given a meeting with a mid-level Foreign Office official in London. Papadopoulos mentions he has senior contacts in the Russian government. British officials conclude he is not a major player and discontinue contact.[444]
    • September 15:
      • DCLeaks sends a Twitter direct message to Wikileaks asking how to discuss submission-related issues because Wikileaks is not responding to messages on their secure chat and DCLeaks has something of interest to share.[87]:46
      • “Guccifer 2.0” sends a Twitter direct message to DCLeaks informing them that WikiLeaks is trying to contact them to set up communications using encrypted emails.[87]:46–47
      • Papadopoulos meets with Stefan Halper’s research assistant Azra Turk for drinks in London. She asks him questions about whether the Trump campaign was working with Russia. Papadopoulos becomes suspicious about the line of questioning and comes to believe Turk is an intelligence agent, possibly from Turkey. In May 2019, The New York Times reports that Turk was an undercover FBI agent supervising Halper’s inquiries into possible connections between the Trump Campaign and Russia.[445]
    • September 16: Barbara Ledeen emails Smith about a cache of purported Clinton emails she says she found on the dark web. She asks for help raising money to pay for a technical advisor to authenticate the emails. Erik Prince provides the money. In April 2018 Prince tells Mueller’s team that the technical advisor determined that the emails were forgeries.[87]:64[425]
    • September 20:
      • Flynn meets with Rohrabacher. On November 10, 2017, the Mueller investigation is reported to have asked questions about this meeting.[446]
      • Alleged GRU hackers compromise a DNC account on a cloud-computing service and begin copying 300 GB of data off of the servers.[87]:49–50
      • While browsing a political chatroom, Jason Fishbein comes across the password to a non-public website ( focusing on Trump’s ties to Russia that is nearing launch. He sends the password and website to WikiLeaks in a Twitter direct message. WikiLeaks tweets about the website and password.[447][87]:59–60
    • September 20–26: BlackMattersUS, an IRA website, recruits activists to participate in protests over the police shooting of Keith Lamont Scott in Charlotte, North Carolina. The IRA pays for expenses such as microphones and speakers.[448]
    • September 21:
      • The New York Times delivers potential evidence of communications with Trump’s domain with Alfa-Bank and other entities to BGR Group, a Washington lobbying firm that worked for Alfa-Bank, from a story Lichtblau was pursuing following findings “Max” and his lawyer decided to hand over to him.[266]
      • WikiLeaks sends a Twitter direct message to Trump Jr. about the password to Several hours later, Trump Jr. emails senior campaign staff about the WikiLeaks direct message and website, including Conway, Bannon, Kushner, David Bossie, and Brad Parscale. After the public launch of, Trump Jr. sends a Twitter direct message to WikiLeaks, “Off the record, l don’t know who that is but I’ll ask around. Thanks.” This is believed to be the first direct communication between Trump Jr. and WikiLeaks.[447][87]:60[449]:33
    • September 22:
      • Senator Dianne Feinstein and Representative Adam Schiff issue a statement warning that Russia is trying to undermine the election. Their warning is based on what they learned from intelligence briefings as members of the Gang of Eight.[450]
      • The IRA buys ads on Facebook for “Miners for Trump” rallies in Pennsylvania.[97][98]
      • DCLeaks sends an encrypted file to WikiLeaks and, separately, a tweet with a string of characters. The Mueller Report suspects that this was a transfer of stolen documents, but does not rule out that Andrew Müller-Maguhn or another intermediary may have hand-delivered the documents. In 2018, Müller-Maguhn, a known hacker and frequent visitor to Assange, denies transporting material to him.[87]:47[451]
    • September 23:
      • Yahoo News reports that U.S. intelligence officials are investigating whether Page has set up private communications between the Trump campaign and senior Russian officials, including talks on possibly lifting sanctions if Trump is elected.[452]
      • The “A record” of the Trump Organization’s domain is deleted.[266]
    • September 24: Trump campaign denies all knowledge of Carter Page as he exits campaign.[453]
    • September 25:
      • When asked by CNN about allegations linking Page to Russia, Conway denies that Page is part of the Trump campaign.[454][455]
      • Page sends Comey a letter asking that the FBI drop the reported investigation into his activities in Russia. He denies meeting with sanctioned Russian officials.[456]
      • FBI informant Stefan Halper asks Trump advisor George Papadopoulos if he is aware of any efforts by Russians to interfere with the 2016 election; Papadopoulos twice denies it.[457]
    • September 26: Page tells Josh Rogin in an interview for The Washington Post that he is taking a leave of absence from the Trump campaign. He denies meeting with sanctioned individuals in Moscow.[458]
    • September 27: Ten minutes after Alfa-Bank servers made a last failed attempt to contact to Trump Organization’s domain (which had its “A record” deleted September 23), one of the Alfa-Bank servers looks up the new domain name, which was routed to the same Trump server. The new domain does not appear to have been previously active and the PTR record did not include the new, alternate name. According to “Max”‘s data, the Alfa-Bank server only looked up the new domain once.[266] Spectrum Health never succeeded in relocating the Trump server through the new route.[266]
    • September 28: Russian-American Simon Kukes donates $99,000 to the Trump Victory Committee, which distributes donations between Trump, the RNC, and state Republican parties. His 2016 political donations become a subject of the Mueller investigation.[401]
    • September 29:
      • Comey testifies before the House Judiciary Committee, confirming that federal investigators have detected suspicious activities in voter registration databases, as stated in the August 18 alert.[459]
      • Butina meets J.D. Gordon at a party at the Swiss ambassador’s residence. Gordon was the Director of National Security for the Trump campaign from February to August. That night, Paul Erickson emails Butina and Gordon offering to “add an electronic bridge” to their meeting at the party. In his email to Butina, Erickson writes that Gordon is “playing a crucial role in the Trump transition effort and would be an excellent addition to any of the U.S./Russia friendship dinners to occasionally hold.” He writes that all the “right” people listen to Gordon on international security. Erickson’s email to Gordon describes Butina as a “special friend” of the NRA and the special assistant to the deputy governor of the Bank of Russia.[460]
    • September 30: Ksenia Baygarova interviews Papadopoulos for Interfax on Trump’s foreign policy positions in relation to Russia.[461] The interview was approved by Trump campaign deputy communications director Bryan Lanza. Baygarova later tells The Washington Post that she had been tasked to interview a representative from each campaign. She says Papadopoulos was the only person from the Trump campaign to respond. She describes him as not very experienced.[136] Adverse publicity generated by the interview leads to Papadopoulous being fired from the campaign in October.[87]:93
    • Late September: Lichtblau and his lawyer meet a roomful of officials at FBI HQ, and is told they are looking into potential Russian interference in the election. FBI officials ask Lichtblau to delay publishing his story.[266]

    October–November 2016[edit]

    • Early October: A team of FBI agents travel to Europe to speak with Steele about his dossier.[213] On or about the same date, Steele gives the FBI a dossier of allegations compiled by Cody Shearer, which corresponded “with what he had separately heard from his own independent sources.” It includes the unverified allegation that Trump was sexually compromised by the Russian secret service at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Moscow in 2013.[462][463]
    • October 1: Stone tweets that something damaging to Clinton will happen soon.[464]
    • October 2:
      • “Miners for Trump” rallies are held across Pennsylvania. The IRA uses the same techniques to organize the rallies as they used for the “Florida Goes Trump” rallies, including hiring a person to wear a Clinton mask and a prison uniform.[97][98]
      • Stone tells Jones on InfoWars, “I’m assured the motherlode is coming Wednesday…I have reason to believe that it is devastating.”[400]
    • October 3:
      • Stone tweets that Assange will release something soon.[465]
      • WikiLeaks sends a Twitter direct message to Trump Jr. asking him to help “push” a WikiLeaks tweet from earlier in the day (“Hillary Clinton on Assange ‘Can’t we just drone this guy?[‘]”) that includes a link to Trump Jr. responds, “Already did that earlier today. It’s amazing what she can get away with. What’s behind this Wednesday leak I keep reading about?”[447][87]:60[449]:34
    • October 4: Assange announces the pending release of a million documents about the U.S. presidential election. He denies any specific intent to harm Clinton.[466]
    • October 5:
      • (Wednesday) Stone tweets that a payload from Assange is coming.[219]
      • Trump Jr. retweets a WikiLeaks tweet announcing an “860Mb [sic]” archive of various Clinton campain documents from “Guccifer 2.0”.[449]:34
    • October 6: Stone tweets, “Julian Assange will deliver a devastating expose on Hillary at a time of his choosing. I stand by my prediction.”[219]
    • October 7:
      • At 12:40 PM EDT,[467] The DHS and the ODNI issue a joint statement[468] accusing the Russian government of breaking into the computer systems of several political organizations and releasing the obtained material via DCLeaks, WikiLeaks, and “Guccifer 2.0”, with the intent “to interfere with the U.S. election process.”[469]
      • Corsi holds a conference call with members of WorldNetDaily in which he warns them of the imminent release of the Access Hollywood tape and tells them “to reach Assange immediately”. In November 2018 he tells Mueller’s team that he thought Malloch was on the call and assumed Malloch had successfully contacted Assange because of the subsequent Podesta emails release later in the day. Travel records show Malloch was on a trans-Atlantic flight at the time. The Mueller Report says Corsi’s sometimes conflicting statements about the call’s contents have not been corroborated.[87]:58–59
      • At 4:03 PM EDT,[467] The Washington Post publishes a raw video tape from the television show Access Hollywood of Trump bragging about grabbing women by their genitals.[470] While the tape is not relevant to the Russian interference in the election, the distraction of its release lessens the public impact of the joint intelligence report released hours earlier and may have triggered WikiLeaks’ Podesta emails release 30 minutes later.[467][471][389]
      • Around 4:30 PM EDT,[467] WikiLeaks begins publishing thousands of Podesta emails, revealing excerpts from Clinton’s paid speeches to Wall Street.[472][473] Trump Jr. retweets WikiLeaks’ and others’ announcements about the release.[449]:34
    • October 8: Kushner’s company receives $370 million in new loans, including $285 million from Deutsche Bank, to refinance his portion of the former New York Times building. The size and timing of the Deutsche Bank loan draws scrutiny from the House Financial Services Committee, the Justice Department, and, later, the Mueller investigation. The concern is that the transaction may be related to Russian money laundering through Deutsche Bank.[474][475]
    • October 9: Banks, Wigmore, and Farage attend the second presidential debate in St. Louis, Missouri.[315]
    • October 11:
      • Trump Jr. travels to Paris to give a paid speech at the Ritz Hotel. The dinner event is sponsored by the Center of Political and Foreign Affairs, a group founded by Fabien Baussart and his business partner. Baussart is openly linked to Russian government officials. Randa Kassis, one of the hosts, travels to Moscow after the election and reports the details of the event to Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov.[476]
      • Podesta says he thinks the Trump campaign had advance notice of WikiLeaks’s release of his emails.[219]
    • October 12: WikiLeaks writes to Trump Jr., “Hey Donald, great to see you and your dad talking about our publications” and “Strongly suggest your dad tweets this link if he mentions us”[477][447][87]:60 Fifteen minutes later, Donald Trump tweets, “Very little pick-up by the dishonest media of incredible information provided by WikiLeaks. So dishonest! Rigged system!”[478]
    • October 13: WikiLeaks again denies communicating with Stone.[479] Later that day, Stone and WikiLeaks communicate by private Twitter message.[219][480]
    • October 14:
      • Trump Jr. tweets about as requested by WikiLeaks on October 12.[481][447][87]:60[482]
      • Pence denies that the Trump campaign is working with WikiLeaks, stating that “nothing could be further from the truth”.[483]
    • October 15:
      • The Democratic Coalition Against Trump files a complaint with the FBI against Stone for colluding with Russia. They ask the FBI to look into connections between Stone, the Trump campaign, and the hacking of Podesta’s emails.[484]
      • The National Security Division of the Justice Department acquires a FISA warrant to monitor the communications of two Russian banks as part of an investigation into whether they illegally transferred money to the Trump campaign.[236]
    • October 16: The IRA’s Instagram account “Woke Blacks” makes a post aimed at suppressing black voter turnout.[97][98]
    • October 18: Butina and Gordon attend a Styx concert together.[460][485]
    • October 19: Senator Harry Reid Letter to FBI Director James B. Comey[486]
      • The FBI and the US Department of Justice (DoJ) apply for a FISA warrant to conduct surveillance on Carter Page.[58][487] In its approval, the FISA Court finds there is probable cause to believe Page is a Russian agent.[488]:67–68[489]
      • During the third presidential debate, Clinton blames Russia for the DNC email leaks and accuses Trump of being a “puppet” of Putin.[490] Trump denies ever having met Putin and any connection to him.[491] Banks, Wigmore, and Farage are in attendance.[315]
      • A Financial Times probe finds evidence a Trump venture has links to alleged laundering network.[492]
      • Stone denies having advance knowledge of WikiLeaks’ release of Podesta’s emails.[493][389]
      • The IRA runs its most popular ad on Facebook. The ad is for the IRA’s Back the Badge Facebook group and shows a badge with the words “Back the Badge” in front of police lights under the caption “Community of people who support our brave Police Officers.”[494]
    • October 21:
      • WikiLeaks sends Trump Jr. private tweets suggesting that the campaign give them Trump’s tax returns to publish so that they seem less of a “‘pro-Trump’ ‘pro-Russia'” source.[478]
      • DOJ and FBI request and obtain new FISA wiretap on Carter Page.[495]
    • October 22: A large rally is held in Charlotte, North Carolina, protesting the police shooting of Keith Lamont Scott. The IRA website BlackMattersUS recruits unwitting local activists to organize the rally.[496] BlackMattersUS provides an activist with a bank card to pay for rally expenses.[448]
    • October 24: Trump announces at a Florida campaign rally, “I have nothing to do with Russia, folks. I’ll give you a written statement.”[455]
    • October 27: At the Valdai Discussion Club yearly forum, Putin denounces American “hysteria” over accusations of Russian interference, saying “Does anyone seriously think that Russia can influence the choice of the American people?”[497]
    • October 28:
      • The FBI reopens its Hillary Clinton email investigation after a monthlong delay during which it focused on investigating the Trump campaign’s connections to Russia, according to the report of the Justice Department’s inspector general.[498][499] A key influence on the decision was a probably fake Russian intelligence document discussing a purported email from Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch to Clinton campaign staffer Amanda Renteria in which she promises to go easy on Clinton.[467][500] Nine days after announcing he was reopening the probe, Comey said the FBI found nothing to change its July decision against bringing charges.[498][499]
      • Peter W. Smith sends an email to an undisclosed list of recipients in which he writes that there is a “tug-of-war going on within WikiLeaks over its planned releases in the next few days” and that WikiLeaks “has maintained that it will save its best revelations for last, under the theory this allows little time for response prior to the U.S. election November 8.” An attachment to the email says that WikiLeaks will release “All 33k deleted Emails” by November 1.[87]:64–65
    • October 30:
      • Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid sends FBI Director James Comey a letter asking him to reveal Trump’s ties to the Russian Federation.[486]
      • Cohen and Giorgi Rtskhiladze exchange text messages in which they discuss suppressing tapes of Trump’s 2013 trip to Moscow rumored to be in the possession of Aras Agalarov’s company, Crocus Group [ru]. In May 2018 Rtskhiladze tells Mueller’s team that he was told the tapes were fake but did not relay that information to Cohen.[501]:27–28[502]
    • October 31:
      • Through the “red phone”, Obama tells Putin to stop interfering or face consequences.[503]
      • Mother Jones magazine’s David Corn reports that a veteran spy, later publicly identified as Steele, gave the FBI information alleging a Russian operation to cultivate Trump, later known as the “Steele dossier”.[504]
      • Slate publishes an article by Franklin Foer alleging that a Trump server was in suspicious contact with Alfa-Bank in Russia.[505] Snopes examined the story and rated it “Unproven”. Several cyber security experts saw nothing nefarious, while the FBI was still investigating the matter: “One U.S. official said investigators find the server relationship ‘odd’ and are not ignoring it. But the official said there is still more work for the FBI to do. Investigators have not yet determined whether a connection would be significant.”[506]
      • The New York Times publishes an article by Lichtblau and Steven Lee Myers with a headline that seems to exonerate the Trump campaign, but withholds some information.[507]
    • November:
      • Mangiante quits the London Centre of International Law Practice after complaining to Mifsud about not being paid her salary.[48]
      • Paul Manafort and Rick Gates falsely assert in writing to the Justice Department that their work for the Ukrainian government did not require registering as foreign agents in the United States. In September 2018, Manafort pleads guilty to lying to the Justice Department about the extent of his work for Ukraine.[508]
      • The GRU targets over 120 Florida election officials’ email accounts with spearphishing attacks.[509][87]:51 They receive emails purportedly from VR Systems, the state’s voter registration and election results service provider, asking them to open a purported Word document containing a trojan.[509][510] At least some emails contain British spellings and come from Gmail acounts, which VR Systems doesn’t use.[510] Many of the emails are flagged by spam filters.[510] They also receive an email from VR’s chief operating officer warning them about the malicious emails.[510] Later, the FBI believes one county government’s network was compromised in a way that would have given security hackers the ability to alter voter registration data, but this is disputed by state election officials.[509][87]:51[510]
    • November 2: The IRA Twitter account @TEN_GOP alleges “#VoterFraud by counting tens of thousands of ineligible mail in Hillary votes being reported in Broward County, Florida.” Trump Jr. retweets it.[97][98]
    • November 3: The IRA Instagram account “Blacktivist” suggests people vote for Stein instead of Clinton.[97][98]
    • November 4: Mother Jones reports that an October security sweep of the DNC offices in Washington, D.C., discovered a signal that may have belonged to a device outside the office that could intercept cell phone calls. The DNC says details of the security sweep were passed on to the FBI and “another agency with three letters,” but no device was ever found.[511]
    • November 5:
      • Konstantin Sidorkov again emails Trump Jr. and Trump campaign social media director Dan Scavino. He again offers to promote Trump to VK’s 100 million users. His previous email was sent on January 19, 2016.[199]
      • Anti-Clinton “Texit” rallies are held across Texas. The IRA’s “Heart of Texas” Facebook group organizes the rallies around the theme of Texas seceding from the United States if Clinton is elected. The group contacts the Texas Nationalist Movement, a secessionist organization, to help with organizing efforts, but they decline to help. Small rallies are held in Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and other cities. No one attends the Lubbock rally.[512][513][514]

    Post-election transition[edit]

    November–December 2016[edit]

    • November–December:
      • Michael Flynn serves as an advisor to SCL Group, the parent company of Cambridge Analytica.[515][516]
      • After the election, a Russian hacker breaks into Election Assistance Commission servers and steals the login credentials for over 100 users. The hack is discovered by chance when Recorded Future, a security firm, comes across the credentials being offered for sale on the dark web to a Middle Eastern government.[517][518]
    • November–January:
      • During the transition period, the FBI warns Trump aide Hope Hicks at least twice that she might be approached by Russian government operatives using fake identities.[519][520]
      • The British Foreign Office holds a series of meetings with Cambridge Analytica executives in London, Washington, and New York to “better understand” how Trump won and acquire insights into the “political environment” following his win.[521]
    • November 9: Dmitriev reaches out to Nader expressing the desire to build closer relationships with the U.S. and the Trump team.[522]
    • November 8:
      • Trump is elected President of the United States.[523]
      • Hours after the polls close, the hashtag #Calexit is retweeted by thousands of IRA accounts.[514]
      • Rospatent, the Russian government agency responsible for intellectual property, grants 10-year extensions on four of Trump’s trademarks.[524]
    • November 10:
      • Kislyak states that Russia was not involved with U.S. election hacking.[525]
      • Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov tells the Interfax news agency “there were contacts” with the Trump team during the campaign.[526]
      • Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova tells Bloomberg News that it was “normal practice” for Russian Embassy staffers to meet with members of the Trump campaign. She says the Clinton campaign declined requests for meetings.[526]
      • In a private Oval Office meeting, Obama warns Trump against hiring Flynn.[527]
      • Mark Zuckerberg calls the idea that “fake news” on Facebook could have influenced the election “crazy.”[528][529]
    • November 11:
      • Hicks denies claims by the Kremlin that Trump officials met with its staff.[455]
      • House Intelligence Committee Chairman Devin Nunes is named to the executive committee of the Trump transition team.[530]
      • Mike Pence replaces Chris Christie as chairman of the Trump transition team. Christie later claims he was fired for opposing Michael Flynn becoming the National Security Advisor. Steve Bannon and Flynn celebrate Christie’s firing by ceremonially throwing binders full of administration candidates into the trash.[531][532]
      • A large banner is hung from the Arlington Memorial Bridge in Washington, D.C., showing a photo of Obama with the words “Goodbye Murderer” at the bottom. The IRA Twitter account @LeroyLovesUSA takes credit and is an early promoter of the banner.[214][533][534]
    • November 12:
      • Butina holds a birthday party at Cafe Deluxe in Washington, D.C., attended by Erickson and Trump campaign aides.[380][174] She claims to be part of Russian communications with the Trump campaign, something she has bragged about for months.[380]
      • A Trump protest called “Trump is NOT my President” attracts 5,000–10,000 protestors in Manhattan who march from Union Square to Trump Tower. The protest is organized by the IRA using their BlackMattersUS Facebook account.[97][98][535]
      • Banks, Farage and Wigmore visit Trump Tower unannounced and are invited inside by Bannon. They have a long meeting with Trump. Wigmore asks Trump’s receptionist for the Trump transition team’s contact information.[536][315][537]
    • November 13: Zakharova jokingly comments on the Rossiya 1 show Sunday Evening with Vladimir Solovyov that “our people in Brighton Beach won the election for Donald Trump.”[538]
    • November 15:
      • Devin Nunes replaces former Representative Mike Rogers as a Trump transition team national security advisor.[539]
      • Banks and Wigmore meet with Yakovenko in London; they discuss their November 12 meeting with Trump, and Sessions’s role in the new administration. At Yakovenko’s request, Banks provides Yakovenko with contact information for the Trump transition team.[536][537][540][541]
    • November 18:
      • Trump announces he will nominate Sessions as Attorney General[542] and Flynn as National Security Adviser.[543] Elijah Cummings, ranking member of the House Oversight Committee, sends Pence a letter warning that Flynn’s connections to Russia and Turkey might create conflicts of interest. He asks the Trump administration’s transition team for documents related to Flynn.[544] Receipt of the letter is acknowledged on November 28.[230]
      • Elijah Cummings, ranking member of the House Oversight Committee, writes a letter to Pence warning that Flynn’s connections to Russia and Turkey might create conflicts of interest. He asks the Trump administration’s transition team for documents related to Flynn.[544] Receipt of the letter is acknowledged on November 28.[230]
    • November 19:
      • The IRA organizes the “Charlotte Against Trump” rally in Charlotte, North Carolina.[97][98]
      • Obama privately meets Mark Zuckerberg at a gathering of world leaders in Lima, Peru. Obama urges Zuckerberg to take the threats of political disinformation and “fake news” seriously, and warns him that doing nothing will cause problems in the next election. Zuckerberg responds that there were only a few messages, and doing something about the problem would be difficult.[529]
    • November 21:
      • Trump calls for Nigel Farage to be made the U.K. Ambassador to the United States. The British government responds, “There is no vacancy.”[545][546]
      • Peter W. Smith, who launched a search for copies of Clinton’s deleted emails in September, asserts WikiLeaks has had the emails for nine months but has not released them.[440][547] In July 2017, WikiLeaks denies the assertion in response to a question by Politico.[440]
    • Late November: Senior members of Trump’s transition team warn Flynn about the dangers of contacting Kislyak, including that Kislyak’s conversations are probably being monitored by the FBI and the NSA. Flynn is recorded a month later discussing sanctions with Kislyak.[548]
    • November 23–28: Kaveladze and Rob Goldstone attempt to set up a meeting between Natalia Veselnitskaya and the Trump transition team during Veselnitskaya’s trip to the U.S.[302][138]
    • November 25: Trump announces K. T. McFarland will be the deputy national security advisor for his new administration after Paul Erickson lobbies former campaign officials and Trump donors to get her the position.[549][550]
    • November 30: On a recommendation from the GSA, Trump transition team members discuss installing Signal, an encrypted messaging app, on Flynn’s phone to encrypt his communications.[551]
    • December: Concerned that the incoming Trump administration will suppress the information collected in the Russia investigation, the White House spreads it across government agencies to leave a trail for future investigators.[552]
    • December 1: According to an anonymous letter to The Washington Post citing leaked intercepts of Russian diplomatic communications, during a transition team meeting at Trump Tower, Kushner asks Kislyak about the potential to communicate directly with the Kremlin over a Russian-encrypted channel. Flynn also attends the meeting.[553][554]
    • Early December: In Russia, FSB cyber chief Sergei Mikhailov, senior Kaspersky Lab researcher Ruslan Stoyanov, and hacker Dmitry Dokuchayev (known as “Forb”) are arrested for treason.[555][556]
    • December 8: The IRA runs an ad on Craigslist to hire someone to walk around New York City dressed as Santa Claus while wearing a Trump mask.[245][87]:32
    • December 9:
      • Republican Senator John McCain delivers the Steele dossier to Comey.[320]
      • The Trump transition team dismisses reported intelligence assessments finding Russian interference in the election. Their statement says, “These are the same people that said Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. The election ended a long time ago in one of the biggest Electoral College victories in history. It’s now time to move on and ‘Make America Great Again.'”[431]
    • December 10: Glenn R. Simpson tells Ohr that Cohen was the “go-between from Russia to the Trump campaign”, and gives him a memory stick containing evidence. Ohr memorializes the meeting in handwritten notes.[557]
    • December 12: Kislyak meets with Kushner’s assistant, Avi Berkowitz, to arrange a meeting between Kushner and the FSB-connected Sergey Gorkov, head of sanctioned Russian bank Vnesheconombank.[64][558][559][560]
    • December 13:
      • Gorkov arrives from Moscow to secretly meet Kushner in New York, before flying to Japan, where Putin is holding a summit. The meeting is first reported in March 2017, and attracts the interest of federal and congressional investigators in May. Kushner later characterizes the meeting as brief and meaningless. The White House later describes the meeting as a diplomatic encounter. The bank later says they discussed Kushner’s real estate business.[64][559][561]
      • Trump picks Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State; Russian officials praise the decision.[562]
    • December 15:
      • Clinton tells a group of donors in Manhattan that Russian hacking was ordered by Putin “because he has a personal beef against me” due to her accusation in 2011 that Russian parliamentary elections that year were rigged.[563][564] Clinton’s comment is backed by U.S. Intelligence reports.[565]
      • Kushner, his close friend and hedge fund manager Richard “Rick” Gerson, Nader, Flynn, Bannon, U.A.E. ambassador to the U.S. Yousef Al Otaiba, crown prince Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan of Abu Dhabi, and former British prime minister Tony Blair meet at the Four Seasons Hotel in New York City. The crown prince broke diplomatic protocol by traveling to the U.S. without announcing his visit to the U.S. government. In June 2018, a spokesman for Gerson tells NBC News that Blair gave a presentation on Israeli-Palestinian peace.[566][567][568][569]
    • December 16: Speaking at his final press conference as president, Obama comes just short of saying Putin was personally behind the DNC and Podesta hacks.[570]
    • December 18: Speaking to CBS News, Conway says it is “false” and “dangerous” to suggest that members of the Trump campaign spoke to any Russians during the campaign.[455][571]
    • December 22: At the direction of a “very senior member” of the transition team, Flynn asks Kislyak to delay or defeat a pending vote on a United Nations Security Council resolution. Flynn later pleads guilty to lying to the FBI about the effort to defeat the resolution.[572][573]
    • December 23: Kislyak calls Flynn and tells him Russia will not vote against the United Nations Security Council resolution they spoke about the day before.[573]
    • December 26: Oleg Erovinkin, a former KGB official, is found dead in the back seat of his car in Moscow. He was suspected of assisting Steele in compiling his dossier.[574]
    • December 28: Kislyak texts Flynn and asks him to call, setting off the series of calls in the following days.[575]
    • December 29:
      • Following Executive Order 13757 signed the previous day, Obama’s administration expels 35 Russian diplomats, locks down two Russian diplomatic compounds, and expands sanctions against Russia.[576][577][578][579] Flynn consults with the Trump transition team,[580][581] then speaks with Kislyak by telephone to request that Russia not escalate matters in response to Obama’s actions.[582][583] Flynn later pleads guilty to lying to the FBI about his conversations with Kislyak regarding the new sanctions.[573]
      • Before Flynn’s call to Kislyak, K. T. McFarland emails other Trump transition officials saying that Flynn will be speaking to Kislyak to try to prevent a cycle of retaliation over the newly imposed sanctions. The email is forwarded to Flynn, Reince Priebus, Bannon, and Sean Spicer.[584]
      • The NCCIC releases a joint analysis report titled “GRIZZLY STEPPE – Russian Malicious Cyber Activity” as a follow-up to the October 7, 2016, joint statement on election security. The report describes methods used by Russian intelligence groups APT29 and APT28 to penetrate election-related servers.[585]
    • December 30: Putin announces he will not retaliate against the U.S. expulsions, contrary to recommendations from Lavrov.[586] In reply, Trump tweets “Great move on delay (by V. Putin) – I always knew he was very smart!”[587] This action is widely interpreted as praising Putin’s actions.
    • December 31: Kislyak calls Flynn to tell him that Russia has decided not to retaliate based upon Flynn’s request. Afterward, Flynn tells senior members of the transition team about his conversations with Kislyak and Russia’s decision not to escalate.[573]

    January 2017[edit]

    Further information: Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia (2017)

    • January:
      • McGahn researches the Logan Act and federal laws related to lying to federal investigators. Records turned over to the Mueller investigation show McGahn believes Flynn violated one or more of those laws.[588]
      • The FBI obtains a new FISA warrant for Carter Page, replacing the expired warrant from October 2016.[488]:163–164[489]
    • Early January:
      • At a meeting in CIA headquarters, a U.S. spy chief warns Mossad agents that Putin may have “leverages of pressure” over Trump, and that intelligence should be shared cautiously with the coming White House and National Security Council, for fear of leaks to the Russians and thereby Iran.[589][590][591]
      • For two days in early January 2017, in a gathering George Nader attends and brokers, Joel Zamel and General Ahmed Al-Assiri meet with Michael Flynn and other members of the Trump transition team in New York. Bannon was also involved. In October 2018, the meeting comes under the Mueller investigation’s scrutiny.[592]
      • Nader meets Prince at The Pierre Hotel in New York City to prepare for the January 11 Seychelles meeting. In the following days, Nader gives Prince biographical information about Kirill Dmitriev, including the fact that Dmitriev oversees the Russian Direct Investment Fund.[593]
    • January 4: The FBI begins investigating Flynn’s December phone calls with Kislyak.[594]
    • January 5: Susan Rice’s email to herself on January 20, 2017.
      • Obama is briefed on the intelligence community’s findings.[595]
      • U.S. intelligence agencies release a report concluding that Putin ordered the cyber-campaign to influence the 2016 election.[132][596]
      • Flynn, Kushner and Bannon meet with the King of Jordan. According to BuzzFeed, they discuss a plan to deploy American nuclear power plants in Jordan with security support from a Russian company. “People close to the three Trump advisers” deny the allegations.[597][598]
      • R. James Woolsey Jr., who became a senior adviser to Trump in September 2016, resigns amid Congressional hearings into cyber attacks and public statements by Trump critical of the United States Intelligence Community.[599]
    • January 6:
      • The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) publishes an unclassified report[600] about Russian meddling in the 2016 election stating that “Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election”.[601] While the report says Russian hackers did not change votes, it ignores the security of back-end election systems.[602] Putin was personally involved in the Russian interference, per a CIA stream of intelligence.[565]
      • Director of National Intelligence (DNI) James Clapper, CIA Director John Brennan, NSA Director Michael Rogers, and FBI Director James Comey travel to Trump Tower in New York City to brief Trump and senior members of the transition team on the classified version of the ODNI report on Russian interference in the election.[603][604][605] They show Trump the intelligence behind their assessment, including human sources confirming Putin’s role, and American, British, and Dutch intelligence services seeing stolen DNC documents in Russian military networks.[606] In addition to Trump, the other people present are incoming White House Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, incoming CIA Director Mike Pompeo, incoming National Security Adviser Michael Flynn, and Vice President-elect Mike Pence. After the briefing, Comey stays behind to privately brief Trump on the salacious allegations in the Steele dossier. While cordial during the briefings, Trump still refuses to accept the intelligence on Russian interference.[565] The meeting unsettles Comey and prompts him to write a memo documenting the conversation.[607]
      • Vekselberg’s cousin and Columbus Nova CEO Andrew Intrater donates $250,000 to the Trump inaugural fund. Intrater’s previous political donations totaled less than $3,000 across all candidates.[608]
    • January 8: Bloomberg reports that Ted Malloch was interviewed by the Trump transition team for the position of U.S. Ambassador to the European Union. Malloch was recommended for the position by Nigel Farage.[609] In 2018, Malloch is served a search warrant by the FBI and questioned by Mueller.[610][611]
    • January 9:
      • Cohen and Vekselberg meet at Trump Tower to discuss their mutual desire to improve Russia’s relationship with the U.S. under the Trump administration.[612] After President Trump was inaugurated, Cohen received a $1 million consulting contract from Columbus Nova, headed by Andrew Intrater, who also attended the Vekselberg meeting.[613]
      • Kushner is named Senior Advisor to the President.[614]
      • Profexer, a Ukrainian hacker who is the author of a hacking tool described in the December 29, 2016, NCCIC report on Russian cyber attacks, goes dark. He turns himself in to the Ukrainian police and becomes a cooperating witness for the FBI. The Ukrainian police say he was not placed under arrest.[615]
    • January 10:
      • In a confirmation hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Sessions denies communicating with the Russian government during Trump’s election campaign.[616]
      • BuzzFeed publishes the Steele dossier alleging various misdeeds by Trump and associates in Russia.[617] Trump dismisses the dossier as “fake news”.[618]
    • January 11:
      • Trump tweets, “Russia has never tried to use leverage over me. I HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH RUSSIA – NO DEALS, NO LOANS, NO NOTHING!”.[619] USA Today says this is “not exactly true”.[620]
      • BBC News’s Paul Wood writes that the salacious information in Steele’s dossier was also reported by “multiple intelligence sources” and “at least one East European intelligence service”.[621][622]
      • Erik Prince, a Trump campaign donor and brother of forthcoming Education Secretary Betsy DeVos, meets in the Seychelles with Kirill Dmitriev, CEO of the Russian government’s $10bn Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF). Prince will claim in August that he scarcely remembers Dmitriev. Dmitriev’s identity is revealed in November 2017, and Prince confirms the meeting in an interview with House investigators on November 30.[623][624] The meeting was organized by the U.A.E. and reportedly includes talks of a “back channel” with Moscow to try to influence Russian policy in the Middle East, joint U.S.–Russian military operations in Syria, peace between Ukraine and Russia, nuclear non-proliferation, RDIF investment in the midwest, and a joint investment fund between RDIF and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.[569][625][626][627] George Nader, an adviser to crown prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan of the U.A.E., facilitates and attends.[628][593] In May 2018 Dmitriev suggests the meeting was more than a chance encounter.[629] The meeting occurs amid a series of meetings of politically connected individuals from Russia, France, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa that are part of a larger gathering hosted by the crown prince.[630]
      • Michael Cohen tells Sean Hannity on The Sean Hannity Show that there is no relationship between Russia and the people around Trump or the Trump campaign.[631][632]
    • January 12:
      • “Guccifer 2.0” denies having any relation to the Russian government.[219][633]
      • Deripaska’s longtime American lobbyist Adam Waldman makes the first of nine visits with Assange in 2017 at the Ecuadorian Embassy in London.[634]
    • January 13:
      • President-elect Trump nominates U.S. Attorney Rod J. Rosenstein as Deputy Attorney General.[635]
      • Sean Spicer claims in a press conference that Flynn had only one call with Kislyak, about setting up a call between Trump and Putin.[636] Emails from December show Spicer most likely knew Flynn discussed sanctions with Kislyak on December 29, 2016, and may have known about the purpose of the call in advance.[584]
      • Waldman visits Assange for the second time.[634]
      • K.T. McFarland insists to a reporter at The Washington Post that Flynn and Kislyak did not discuss sanctions and only spoke with each other prior to December 29. The statement contradicts emails between herself and Flynn.[637]
      • The Senate Intelligence Committee announces it will investigate Russian cyberattacks, meddling in the election, and “intelligence regarding links between Russia and individuals associated with political campaigns.”[154][638][639]
    • January 15: Interviewed on CBS’s Face the Nation and Fox News Sunday, Vice President-elect Pence repeatedly denies any connection between the Trump campaign team and Russians.[230] He also denies Flynn discussed sanctions with Kislyak.[636]
    • January 16: Anthony Scaramucci, then a member of the Trump transition team, meets Dmitriev at the World Economic Forum in Davos. They discuss possible joint investments with the Russian Direct Investment Fund, which is under U.S. sanctions.[625][640][641]
    • January 17:
      • Sessions states in writing that he has not been “in contact with anyone connected to any part of the Russian government about the 2016 election.”[642] Sessions had been accused of failing to disclose two meetings with Kislyak.[643]
      • Leonard Blavatnik, Sergei Kislyak, and Russian-American president of IMG Artists Alexander Shustorovich attend the Chairman’s Global Dinner, an invitation-only inaugural event. Other attendees include Michael Flynn, Manafort, Bannon, and Nix. Blavatnik and Shustorovich donated $1 million each to the Trump inaugural fund. Shustorovich is a longtime business partner of Vekselberg, and, nearly 20 years earlier, the Republican National Committee returned his six-figure donation because of his past ties to the Russian government.[644][645][608]
    • January 17–20: Dmitriev circulates a memo at the World Economic Forum in Davos that describes his discussions with Prince in the Seychelles on January 11.[627]
    • January 18:
      • Jared Kushner files his security clearance application without listing his meetings with Russians.[646]
      • The Daily Sabah reports a breakfast event occurred at the Trump International Hotel Washington, D.C., with about 60 invitees, including Nunes, Flynn, and foreign officials.[647] The Daily Beast reports in January 2019 Mueller is investigating whether foreigners contributed money to the Trump inaugural fund and PAC through American intermediaries.[648]
    • January 18/19: McClatchy[649] and The New York Times report that Manafort, Page and Stone have been under investigation by the FBI, NSA, CIA, and FinCEN,[650] based on intercepted Russian communications and financial transactions.[651] Sources say “the investigators have accelerated their efforts in recent weeks but have found no conclusive evidence of wrongdoing.”[650]
    • January 19:
      • Senators Elizabeth Warren and Ben Cardin send Treasury Secretary-Designate Steve Mnuchin a letter asking him to commit to investigating Scaramucci for possibly violating U.S. sanctions on the Russian Direct Investment Fund during his January 16 meeting with Dmitriev in Davos.[625][640][652] On May 12, in response to a follow-up query, the Treasury Department informs Warren her letter was forwarded to the Office of Foreign Assets Control.[625][653]
      • Vekselberg and Intrater meet Cohen for a second time at the Candlelight Dinner, an event for $1 million donors to Trump’s inaugural fund. They are seated together with Cohen’s family. Days later, Columbus Nova awards Cohen a $1 million consulting contract.[654][644]
      • Billionaire Leonard Blavatnik and Kazakh oligarch Alexander Mashkevitch attend the Candlelight Dinner. They qualified for tickets to the event by donating $1 million each to the Trump inaugural fund.[644]
      • In December 2018, it is reported at least 16 Trump associates interacted with Russian nationals during the campaign and transition period, including Papadopoulos, Manafort, Gates, Flynn, Page, Sessions, Gordon, Caputo, Sater, Cohen, Prince, Stone, Ivanka Trump, Trump Jr., Kushner, and Kushner aide Avi Berkowitz.[655][656]
    • January 20: Obama leaves office.[657] See Timeline of the presidency of Donald Trump.

    Investigations’ continuing timelines[edit]

    • Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia (2017)
    • Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia (2018)
    • Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia (2019)

    See also[edit]

    • Russia portal
    • United States portal
    • Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections intelligence report
    • Business projects of Donald Trump in Russia
    • Cyberwarfare by Russia
    • Donald Trump’s disclosure of classified information to Russia
    • Efforts to impeach Donald Trump
    • Propaganda in the Russian Federation
    • Russian espionage in the United States
    • Russian interference in the 2016 Brexit referendum
    • Social media in the 2016 United States presidential election


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  • ^ a b c Miller, Greg; Jaffe, Greg; Rucker, Philip (December 14, 2017). “Doubting the intelligence, Trump pursues Putin and leaves a Russian threat unchecked”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 16, 2017. Following a rehearsed plan, Clapper functioned as moderator, yielding to Brennan and others on key points in the briefing, which covered the most highly classified information U.S. spy agencies had assembled, including an extraordinary CIA stream of intelligence that had captured Putin’s specific instructions on the operation. […] organized around two main objectives—destabilizing U.S. democracy and preventing Hillary Clinton, who is despised by Putin, from reaching the White House.
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  • ^ Betsy Woodruff and Erin Banco (October 25, 2018). “Saudi Spy Met With Team Trump About Taking Down Iran: Mueller’s investigators examined a series of meetings between an Israeli social media strategist, the general blamed for Jamal Khashoggi’s murder, and Trump adviser Michael Flynn”. Retrieved October 25, 2018.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • ^ a b Thomas, Pierre; Meek, James Gordon (April 6, 2018). “Mueller has evidence that Trump supporter’s meeting with Putin ally may not have been a chance encounter: Sources”. ABC News. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  • ^ Rosenberg, Matthew; Mazetti, Mark (May 17, 2017). “Trump Team Knew Flynn Was Under Investigation Before He Came to White House”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  • ^ Flegenheimer, Matt; Shane, Scott (January 5, 2017). “Countering Trump, Bipartisan Voices Strongly Affirm Findings on Russian Hacking”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
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  • ^ Rucker, Philip (January 5, 2017). “Former CIA director James Woolsey quits Trump transition team”. The Washington Post.
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  • ^ “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections” (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. January 6, 2017.
  • ^ Perlroth, Nicole; Wines, Michael; Rosenberg, Matthew (September 1, 2017). “Russian Election Hacking Efforts, Wider Than Previously Known, Draw Little Scrutiny”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  • ^ Shabad, Rebecca (January 6, 2017). “Will Trump accept U.S. intelligence assessment on Russia hacking after briefing?”. CBS News. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  • ^ Greenwood, Max (January 12, 2017). “FBI director briefed Trump on dossier: reports”. The Hill. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  • ^ Woodward, Bob (September 2018). Fear: Trump in the White House. Simon & Schuster. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-1-5011-7551-0.
  • ^ Sanger, David E.; Rosenberg, Matthew (July 18, 2018). “From the Start, Trump Has Muddied a Clear Message: Putin Interfered”. The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  • ^ Hulse, Carl (June 8, 2017). “Trump’s Interactions With Comey: Criminal or Clueless?”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  • ^ a b Corn, David; Friedman, Dan (August 17, 2017). “A Putin-Friendly Oligarch’s Top US Executive Donated $285,000 to Trump”. Mother Jones. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  • ^ Paton, James (January 8, 2017). “Trump Interviews Brexit Supporter as U.S. Envoy to EU, Mail Says”. Bloomberg LP. Archived from the original on January 9, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  • ^ Kirchgaessner, Stephanie (March 30, 2018). “FBI questions Ted Malloch, Trump campaign figure and Farage ally”. the Guardian. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  • ^ Sheth, Sonam (March 30, 2018). “A ‘significant figure’ linked to Roger Stone has been compelled to testify in the Russia probe as Mueller homes in on the DNC hack”. Business Insider. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  • ^ Prokupecz, Shimon; Scannell, Kara; Her, Jeremy (May 25, 2018). “Russian oligarch met with Michael Cohen at Trump Tower during transition”. CNN. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  • ^ Sykes, Michael (February 25, 2019). “Michael Cohen met with Russian oligarch days before Trump’s inauguration”. Axios. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  • ^ Trump, Donald J. (January 9, 2017).”President-Elect Donald J. Trump Names Jared Kushner Senior Advisor to the President” (Press release). N.Y.C.:GreatAgain. Trump today announced Jared Kushner will serve as Senior Advisor to the President… Kushner, a widely respected businessman and real estate developer was instrumental in formulating and executing the strategy behind President-elect Trump’s historic victory…”
  • ^ Kramer, Andrew E.; Higgins, Andrew (August 16, 2017). “In Ukraine, a Malware Expert Who Could Blow the Whistle on Russian Hacking”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  • ^ Abramson, Alana (March 2, 2017). “Here’s Exactly What Jeff Sessions Said About Russia at his Confirmation Hearing”. Time. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  • ^ Bensinger, Ken; Elder, Miriam; Schoofs, Mark (January 10, 2017). “These Reports Allege Trump Has Deep Ties To Russia”. BuzzFeed News. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
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  • ^ a b c d Banco, Erin (November 28, 2017). “Trump Envoy Erik Prince Met with CEO of Russian Direct Investment Fund in Seychelles”. The Intercept.
  • ^ Banco, Erin (December 13, 2018). “Get Ready for Mueller’s Phase Two: The Middle East Connection”. The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  • ^ a b Banco, Erin; Woodruff, Betsy (September 26, 2018). “Revealed: What Erik Prince and Moscow’s Money Man Discussed in That Infamous Seychelles Meeting”. The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  • ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Kirkpatrick, David D.; Goldman, Adam (March 6, 2018). “Adviser to Emirates With Ties to Trump Aides Is Cooperating With Special Counsel”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  • ^ Matthew Mosk, Patrick Reevell, James Gordon Meek (May 24, 2018). “Putin ally suggests Seychelles meeting with Erik Prince more than chance encounter over a beer”. Retrieved May 25, 2018.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • ^ Banco, Erin (April 10, 2018). “The Trump Russia probe is expanding, as Mueller looks into new meetings in Seychelles: exclusive”. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  • ^ Massie, Chris; Kaczynski, Andrew (May 15, 2018). “Trump’s lawyer falsely claimed in 2017 interview that Trump Organization had no recent activity in Russia”. CNN. Retrieved June 21, 2018. “There’s no relationship,” Cohen told Hannity in the January 11, 2017 appearance. “The last time that there was any activity between the Trump Organization—actually, wasn’t even really the Trump Organization, it was the Miss Universe pageant, it was held in Moscow,” Cohen said, referring to the pageant held in 2013.
  • ^ “Michael Cohen On The Sean Hannity Show” (audio). The Sean Hannity Show. January 11, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2018 – via SoundCloud.
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  • ^ Schor, Elana (January 13, 2017). “Intelligence Committee will investigate possible Russia-Trump links”. Politico. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  • ^ U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (January 13, 2017). “Joint Statement on Committee Inquiry into Russian Intelligence Activities”. U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
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  • ^ Elder, Miriam (January 17, 2017). “Trump’s Translator Wants The Global Elite To Understand Him”. Buzzfeed News. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
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  • ^ McAfee, Tierney (January 20, 2017). “The Obamas Welcome Donald and Melania Trump to the White House Just Before Inauguration”. People. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  • Further reading[edit]

    • Benkler, Yochai; Faris, Robert; Roberts, Hal (October 15, 2018). Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation and Radicalization in American Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190923631.
    • Bittman, Ladislav (1983). The KGB and Soviet Disinformation. Foreword by Roy Godson.
    • Chait, Jonathan (July 9, 2018). “Will Trump Be Meeting With His Counterpart — Or His Handler? A plausible theory of mind-boggling collusion”. The Daily Intelligencer. New York magazine. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
    • Robert Costa, Carol D. Leonnig, and Josh Dawsey Inside the secretive nerve center of the Mueller investigation, The Washington Post. December 2, 2017.
    • Demirjian, Karoun (December 8, 2016). “Republicans ready to launch wide-ranging probe of Russia, despite Trump’s stance”. Chicago Tribune, The Washington Post.
    • DiResta, Renee; Shaffer, Kris; Ruppel, Becky; Sullivan, David; Matney, Robert; Fox, Ryan; Albright, Jonathan; Johnson, Ben. “The Tactics & Tropes of the Internet Research Agency” (PDF). New Knowledge – via Wikimedia Commons.
    • Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Jaffe, Greg (December 26, 2017). “Kremlin trolls burned across the Internet as Washington debated options.” The Washington Post.
    • Foer, Franklin (March 2018). “The Plot Against America”. The Atlantic.
    • Frank, Thomas (January 12, 2018). “Secret Money: How Trump Made Millions Selling Condos To Unknown Buyers”. BuzzFeed News.
    • Hamburger, Tom; Helderman, Rosalind S. (February 6, 2018). “Hero or hired gun? How a British former spy became a flash point in the Russia investigation.” The Washington Post.
    • Harding, Luke (November 16, 2017). Collusion: Secret Meetings, Dirty Money, and How Russia Helped Donald Trump Win. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0525520931.
      • Harding, Luke (November 19, 2017). “The Hidden History of Trump’s First Trip to Moscow”. Collusion: Secret Meetings, Dirty Money, and How Russia Helped Donald Trump Win – via Politico Magazine.
    • Hettena, Seth (May 2018). Trump / Russia: A Definitive History. Melville House Publishing. ISBN 978-1612197395.
    • Howard, Philip N.; Ganesh, Bharath; Liotsiou, Dimitra; Kelly, John; François, Camille (December 17, 2018). “The IRA, Social Media and Political Polarization in the United States, 2012-2018” (PDF). Computational Propaganda Research Project – via Wikimedia Commons.
    • Jamieson, Kathleen Hall (October 3, 2018). Cyberwar: How Russian Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect a President; What We Don’t, Can’t, and Do Know. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190915810.
    • Lichtman, Allan J. (2017), The Case for Impeachment, Dey Street Books, ISBN 978-0062696823
    • Luce, Edward (November 3, 2017) The Big Read: Trump under siege from Mueller as he travels to Asia. Financial Times.
    • John McCain; Lindsey Graham; Chuck Schumer; Jack Reed (December 11, 2016). “McCain, Graham, Schumer, Reed Joint Statement on Reports That Russia Interfered with the 2016 Election”. United States Senate Committee on Armed Services.
    • Nance, Malcolm (October 10, 2016). The Plot to Hack America: How Putin’s Cyberspies and WikiLeaks Tried to Steal the 2016 Election. Skyhorse Publishing.
    • Osnos, Evan; Remnick, David; Yaffa, Joshua. “Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War,” (March 6, 2017), The New Yorker.
    • Pacepa, Ion Mihai; Rychlak, Ronald J. (2013). Disinformation: Former Spy Chief Reveals Secret Strategies for Undermining Freedom, Attacking Religion, and Promoting Terrorism
    • Porter, Tom (December 1, 2016). “US House of representatives backs proposal to counter global Russian subversion”. International Business Times UK edition.
    • Shane, Scott; Mazzetti, Mark (September 20, 2018). “The Plot to Subvert an Election”, The New York Times
    • Shultz, Richard H.; Godson, Roy (1984). Dezinformatsia: Active Measures in Soviet Strategy
    • Strohm, Chris (December 1, 2016). “Russia Weaponized Social Media in U.S. Election, FireEye Says”. Bloomberg News.
    • Thompson, Nicholas; Vogelstein, Fred (February 12, 2018). “Inside the two years that shook Facebook–and the World.” Wired.
    • Toobin, Jeffrey (December 11, 2017). “Michael Flynn’s Guilty Plea Sends Donald Trump’s Lawyers Scrambling” The New Yorker.
    • Unger, Craig (July 13, 2017). “Trump’s Russian Laundromat” The New Republic.
    • Unger, Craig (2018). House of Trump, House of Putin: The Untold Story of Donald Trump and the Russian Mafia. Dutton. ISBN 978-1524743505.
    • Watts, Clint (2018). Messing with the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers, Terrorists, Russians, and Fake News. Harper. ISBN 978-0062795984.
    • Andrew Weisburd; Clint Watts; J. M. Berger (November 6, 2016). “Trolling for Trump: How Russia is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy”.

    External links[edit]

    • Lisa Desjardins (February 21, 2019) [Jun 7, 2018]. “The giant timeline of everything Russia, Trump and the investigations”. PBS NewsHour.
    • “Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security”, October 7, 2016
    • Trump Investigations by the Associated Press
    • Bill Moyers: Interactive Timeline: Everything We Know About Russia and President Trump
    • Committee to Investigate Russia
    • Data, Democracy and Dirty Tricks, March 19, 2018 Channel 4
    • Trump and Russia: A timeline of the investigation
    • Tracking the Russia investigations, CNN
    • The Trump Russia Investigation.
    • “The Russia investigation and Donald Trump: a timeline from on-the-record sources”

    Designated Survivor (TV series)

    Designated Survivor is an American political thriller drama television series created by David Guggenheim that aired on ABC for two seasons. From season three onwards, the show has aired exclusively and globally on Netflix. Kiefer Sutherland stars as Thomas Kirkman, an American politician named as the designated survivor for the State of the Union address, who suddenly ascends from the position of U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to President of the United States after an explosion kills everyone ahead of him in the presidential line of succession. Kirkman deals with his inexperience as head of state while looking to uncover the truth behind the attack.

    The project skipped the pilot stage and was ordered straight to series on December 14, 2015, followed by a formal announcement on May 6, 2016. The first episode premiered on September 21, 2016, to an audience of over 10 million viewers. Eight days later, a full season order was announced. The series was renewed for a second season on May 11, 2017, which premiered on September 27, 2017. On May 11, 2018, ABC cancelled the series after two seasons. On September 5, 2018, Netflix and Entertainment One announced they had reached a deal to pick up Designated Survivor for a third season of 10 episodes with the latter being solely responsible for production of the series. The third season premiered on Netflix on June 7, 2019.[4]


    • 1 Premise
    • 2 Cast and characters
      • 2.1 Main
      • 2.2 Recurring
    • 3 Episodes
    • 4 Production
      • 4.1 Development
      • 4.2 Writing
      • 4.3 Casting
    • 5 Release
      • 5.1 Broadcast
      • 5.2 Marketing
    • 6 Reception
      • 6.1 Critical reception
      • 6.2 Ratings
      • 6.3 Accolades
    • 7 Remakes
    • 8 References
    • 9 External links


    On the night of the State of the Union address, an explosion destroys the United States Capitol building and claims the lives of the President and everyone in the line of succession except for Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Thomas Kirkman, who had been named the designated survivor. Kirkman is immediately sworn in as President, unaware that the attack is just the beginning of what is to come.

    Cast and characters[edit]


    • Kiefer Sutherland as Tom Kirkman, the President of the United States, sworn in following an unprecedented attack on the Capitol building which killed the entire government. He formerly held the office of Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Kirkman is re-elected for a second term at the end of the third season.[5][6]
    • Natascha McElhone as Alex Kirkman (seasons 1–2), the First Lady of the United States. Prior to becoming First Lady, Alex was an attorney at the EEOC. In season two, Alex was killed after a truck crashed into the motorcade she was travelling in.[7]
    • Adan Canto as Aaron Shore, the Vice President of the United States. Aaron’s previous roles include being the Chief of Staff until resigning after being interrogated about the terrorist attack on the Capitol in the first season. He also was an aide to the Speaker of the House Kimble Hookstraten, before returning to the White House as Kirkman’s National Security Advisor. [8][6]
    • Italia Ricci as Emily Rhodes, the spokesperson of Kirkman’s presidential campaign. She has worked for Tom since his days as HUD Secretary, where she was his Chief of Staff. After Kirkman became President, she was appointed Special Advisor, and, following Aaron’s resignation, his Chief of Staff until resigning from the White House. She later returned and was reinstated as Special Advisor.[7][6]
    • LaMonica Garrett as Mike Ritter (seasons 1–2), a Secret Service agent, assigned to President Kirkman’s personal protection detail. Ritter was responsible for the safety of the entire Kirkman family following the Capitol attack.[9]
    • Tanner Buchanan as Leo Kirkman (season 1;[a] recurring season 2), Tom and Alex’s son and Penny’s older brother. Leo is tasked with supporting his sister Penny while his parents are busy in their new jobs. Later, Leo leaves the White House after being offered a place to study at Stanford University.[10]
    • Kal Penn as Seth Wright, the White House Communications Director. He initially doubts Tom’s abilities as President, but quickly becomes one of his closest advisors. He previously held the office of Press Secretary until his promotion to Communications Director.[7][6]
    • Maggie Q as Hannah Wells (seasons 1–3), a CIA Case Officer. Formerly an FBI Special Agent, she is assigned to investigate the Capitol attack, eventually solving the case and bringing those responsible to justice. In season three, after being fired from the Bureau, Hannah investigates a possible threat of bio-terrorism, ultimately leading to her death.[7][6][11]
    • Paulo Costanzo as Lyor Boone (season 2), the White House Political Director. Lyor is a highly skilled, yet socially inept political consultant who is hired to help develop the political strategy of Kirkman’s administration.[12]
    • Zoe McLellan as Kendra Daynes (season 2), a White House Counsel. Kendra is a no-nonsense attorney who previously served as counsel for the Senate Homeland Security sub-committee.[13]
    • Ben Lawson as Damian Rennett (season 2), an MI6 agent. He is assigned to assist Wells in finding the Capitol attack perpetrator. He is shot multiple times and killed by a Russian Intelligence Agent in a drive-by-shooting.[14]
  • ^ Tanner Buchanan was credited as a series regular through season 1, episode 13. From season 1, episode 14 onward, he is credited as recurring.
  • Recurring[edit]

    • Mckenna Grace as Penny Kirkman, Tom and Alex’s daughter and Leo’s younger sister.[10]
    • Peter Outerbridge as Charles Langdon, former Chief of Staff in the Richmond administration. Charles is one of the survivors of the Capitol attack who later provides Wells and the FBI with information about the conspiracy.
    • Malik Yoba as Jason Atwood, former Deputy Director of the FBI. Jason leads the FBI investigation into the Capitol attack alongside Wells, becoming one of Wells’ most trusted allies. Jason is eventually shot and killed by Nestor Lozano, who catches him spying on Jay Whitaker, who is revealed to be conspiring with the perpetrator of the Capitol bombing. [15]
    • Kevin McNally as Harris Cochrane, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Harris initially refuses to accept Kirkman as the new commander-in-chief and attempts to have him removed from office. He is fired by Kirkman after disobeying a direct order.[16]
    • Virginia Madsen as Kimble Hookstraten, the Speaker of the House. Kimble is a Republican from Missouri, who is selected as the designated survivor for the party. She supports Kirkman’s authority, while secretly harbouring her own agenda. Kimble later becomes the Secretary of Education.
    • Ashley Zukerman as Peter MacLeish, former Congressman and Vice President of the United States. Peter is initially established as the sole survivor of the Capitol bombing and hailed a national hero. MacLeish eventually becomes Vice President. After investigating him for months, Hannah reaches the conclusion that he was involved in the preperation of the Capitol attack, leading to MacLeish being shot and killed by his wife before taking her own life.[17]
    • George Tchortov as Nestor Lozano, a former CIA agent. Nestor is wanted by the FBI due to him being heavily involved in the Capitol attack conspiracy. He operates under the name “Catalan”.
    • Reed Diamond as John Forstell, former Director of the FBI. John occasionally assists Wells with her investigations into the Capitol attack, while continuously establishing that he is in charge, not her. In season two, John is killed in a subway station bombing after running inside to alert his agents and to evacuate them.
    • Mykelti Williamson as Admiral Chernow, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Chernow becomes one of Kirkman’s most trusted advisors after succeeding Cochrane as Chairman after he is fired for disobedience.[18]
    • Michael Gaston as James Royce, the former Governor of Michigan. James openly and repeatedly defies the Kirkman administration whilst trying to establish his own supreme authority. After Royce begins to violently detain protestors for going against his own beliefs, he is arrested for committing treason against the United States.[19]
    • Mariana Klaveno as Brooke Mathison, a self-claimed contractor. Brooke abducts Luke, Atwood’s son, and blackmails Jason into falsely confessing to the murder of Majid Nassar in exchange for his safety. She fails to hold up her end of the deal and Luke is later found dead on a river bank. She is later killed by Atwood.
    • Jake Epstein as Chuck Russink, an FBI analyst. Chuck regularly assists Wells in her investigations, becoming one of her most trusted allies.
    • Lara Jean Chorostecki as Beth MacLeish, the wife of Peter MacLeish. Beth, alongside her husband, is a part of the Capitol attack conspiracy. She goads Peter into following through with their premeditated agenda. She eventually shoots and kills Peter before committing suicide after learning that their plan and involvement had been uncovered by Wells.
    • Rob Morrow as Abe Leonard, a newspaper journalist. Abe is an old friend of Kimble Hookstraten who harbors some hatred towards Seth. He is determined to find something to incriminate the Kirkman family.[20]
    • Geoff Pierson as Cornelius Moss, former President of the United States. Moss is appointed by Kirkman as Secretary of State. He is later removed from this position and becomes the Republican nominee to become President in the third season.[21]
    • Mark Deklin as Jack Bowman, a Republican senator. Jack seeks to raise his profile by continuously opposing Kirkman’s legislative agenda.
    • Kearran Giovanni as Diane Hunter, a Democratic senator. She is also the Senate Minority Leader, who has a habit of sparring with Bowman.
    • Terry Serpico as Patrick Lloyd, former Chief Executive of Browning Reed. Patrick is the founder and leader of the True Believers, the organisation responsible for the Capitol attack. Wells uncovers Lloyd as the mastermind behind the attack, subsequently leading to Kirkman ordering a drone strike on his bunker, killing him.
    • Richard Waugh as Jay Whitaker, former Homeland Security Advisor. While working at the White House, Jay hacks into the computers and downloads a file containing a false confession to the bombing of the Capitol by Majid Nassar, also deleting files that could compromise his secret. Jay is the person responsible for Kirkman becoming designated survivor. After receiving images and an audio file sent by Atwood prior to his death, Hannah discovers Jay’s secrets, leading to his arrest in the West Wing.
    • Breckin Meyer as Trey Kirkman, Tom’s estranged younger brother. Trey is a financial expert, and after reconciling their relationship, he becomes a confidant and advisor to the President.[22]
    • Kim Raver as Andrea Frost, the Chief Executive of Apache Aerospace. Andrea is an aerospace engineer and a collegue of Kirkman’s. She becomes Wells’ prime suspect in her investigation into Gamine’s identity.[23]
    • Michael J. Fox as Ethan West, an attorney. Ethan is hired by Kirkman’s administration to oversee an inquiry investigating Kirkman’s fitness to serve as President. [24]
    • Nora Zehetner as Valeria Poriskova, a Russian intelligence agent. Valeria is assigned to become an undercover Russian Embassy cultural attaché. She is also British MI6 agent, Damian Rennett’s handler. In season two, Valeria attempts to kill Hannah in a drive-by-shooting, instead killing Rennett who shielded Wells. She is later killed in the United Kingdom after being shot by Hannah.[25]
    • Aunjanue Ellis as Ellenor Derby, former Vice President of the United States. Ellenor previously served as the Mayor of Washington D.C. until being nominated by Kirkman as the next Vice President, following their successful collaboration and response to the power failure caused by a cyberattack. She is succeeded by Aaron Shore after declining to be Kirkman’s running mate in favour of pursuing the Democratic presidential nomination, which proves unsuccessful.
    • Anthony Edwards as Mars Harper, the White House Chief of Staff. Mars is appointed after Emily’s resignation.[26]
    • Julie White as Lorraine Zimmer, the campaign manager for Kirkman’s presidential campaign.[26]
    • Elena Tovar as Isabel Pardo, the White House Deputy Chief of Staff. Before being promoted, Isabel held the position of White House Director of Social Innovation[27]
    • Lauren Holly as Lynn Harper, the daughter of a renowned Virginia senator and the wife of Mars Harper.[28]
    • Ben Watson as Dontae Evans, the White House Digital Officer.[28]
    • Chukwudi Iwuji as Dr. Eli Mays, a DIY biohacker and geneticist. He works closely with Hannah to thwart an expected bioterrorist attack before she is killed.[29]
    • Jamie Clayton as Sasha Booker, Alex’s sister and Tom’s sister-in-law.[30]


    Main article: List of Designated Survivor episodes



    Designated Survivor was ordered straight to series by ABC in December 2015,[31] with a formal announcement of 13 episodes in May 2016.[32][33] A month later, ABC revealed that the series would premiere on September 21, 2016.[34] Eight days after the premiere, on September 29, 2016, ABC gave the series a full season order.[35]

    Created by David Guggenheim, the series is executive produced by Simon Kinberg, Sutherland, Suzan Bymel, Aditya Sood, and Nick Pepper. Paul McGuigan directed the pilot episode. Amy B. Harris was set to be the showrunner in February 2016, but after the series’ official pick-up in May, it was announced she would be stepping down due to creative differences, and that Jon Harmon Feldman was in talks to replace her.[36] In July 2016, Feldman was confirmed as showrunner/executive producer.[15] In December 2016, Jeff Melvoin was hired as showrunner, replacing the departing Feldman, and supervised the second half of the season.[37] The series was renewed for a second season on May 11, 2017, which premiered on September 27, 2017.[38][39] For the second season, writer Keith Eisner serves as the showrunner.[40] Kal Penn, formerly associate director in the White House’s Office of Public Engagement, serves as a consultant for the series as well as acting in the main cast.[41]

    On May 11, 2018, ABC canceled the series after two seasons due to a high turnover of showrunners and declining ratings.[42][43] Shortly after, eOne announced they were in “active discussions” with other networks to revive the show, including Netflix, which streams the series internationally.[44] On September 5, 2018, it was confirmed that Netflix had picked up the series for a third season of 10 episodes, to be released in 2019. Neal Baer will serve as the series showrunner, the fifth person to do so.[45] On April 24, 2019, it was announced that the third season is set to premiere on Netflix on June 7, 2019.[4]

    The first two seasons were produced by ABC Studios, The Mark Gordon Company, and eOne,[45] with filming in Toronto, Ontario.[46] For the third season, ABC Studios will not be involved, with eOne (which had fully acquired the Mark Gordon Company) being the sole production company for the series.[45]


    Producers Jon Harmon Feldman and Guggenheim described the series as more than one genre, drawing inspiration from other thriller-dramas, with Guggenheim explaining, “There is a West Wing component of a man governing and his team governing our nation at this critical time. It’s also the Homeland aspect of investigating the conspiracy. It also has a House of Cards component, which is the characters and the business of government through the eyes of these characters.”[47][48]


    Kiefer Sutherland plays the lead role, Tom Kirkman

    Kiefer Sutherland joined the cast in December 2015, playing Tom Kirkman, the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development who suddenly becomes President of the United States.[49] Sutherland had no intention of returning to television; he read the first script of the series and changed his mind, saying, “I remember getting to the end of the script and thinking I was potentially holding the next 10 years of my life in my hands.”[48]

    In February 2016, it was announced that Kal Penn had been cast as Kirkman’s speech writer, Maggie Q as Hannah, the lead FBI agent on the bombing of the U.S. Capitol, Natascha McElhone as Kirkman’s wife, an EEOC attorney, as well as Italia Ricci as Emily, Kirkman’s chief of staff.[7] Shortly after, Adan Canto had joined the series as Aaron Shore, the White House Deputy Chief of Staff.[8] In early March, LaMonica Garrett joined the cast as Mike Ritter, Kirkman’s Secret Service agent,[9] and Tanner Buchanan and Mckenna Grace had been cast as Kirkman’s children.[10]

    In July 2016, Malik Yoba was announced for a recurring role as Jason Atwood, the seasoned Deputy Director of the FBI, to appear in seven episodes,[15] while Virginia Madsen had been cast in the recurring role of Kimble Hookstraten, a conservative Congresswoman and the designated survivor for the rival political party.[50] A month later, Ashley Zukerman joined the series in a recurring role as Peter MacLeish, an Afghan War veteran and popular third-term Congressman.[17] In September 2016, Mykelti Williamson was cast as Admiral Chernow, a career military man and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[18] On November 4, 2016, it was announced that Mariana Klaveno had been cast for the show as the Dark-Haired Woman, a clandestine operator in league with the people behind the Capitol attack.[51]

    For the second season, Paulo Costanzo, Zoe McLellan, and Ben Lawson joined the cast as series regulars, portraying White House Political Director Lyor Boone,[12] White House Counsel Kendra Daynes,[13] and Damian Rennett,[14] respectively.

    After the third season renewal announcement, it was confirmed that Kiefer Sutherland, Adan Canto, Italia Ricci, Kal Penn and Maggie Q would return as series regulars.[6] On October 18, 2018, it was reported that Anthony Edwards, Julie White and Elena Tovar were cast in the recurring roles of Mars Harper, Lorraine Zimmer and Isabel Pardo respectively.[26][27][52] On November 15, 2018, Lauren Holly and Benjamin Watson were cast in recurring roles as Lynn Harper and Dontae Evans, respectively.[28]



    Designated Survivor began airing on September 21, 2016, on ABC in the United States,[34] and CTV in Canada.[53] Netflix aired the series outside the United States and Canada, adding the episodes weekly,[54][55] with distribution handled by eOne.[56] For the third season, Designated Survivor will release globally on Netflix. Before Netflix announced it would release the third season, an agreement had to be reached with Hulu, who held the streaming rights to the first two seasons in the United States; the first two seasons moved to Netflix in the United States and Canada during October 2018.[45]


    A teaser trailer for Designated Survivor was released on May 6, 2016,[32] with the full trailer released on May 17.[57] Producers and some of the cast members promoted the series at San Diego Comic-Con in July 2016, showing a special preview screening with co-stars Maggie Q and Kal Penn in attendance.[58]


    Critical reception[edit]

    Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes gave Season 1 of the series an approval rating of 86% based on 56 reviews, with an average rating of 6.98/10. The site’s critical consensus reads, “Kiefer Sutherland skillfully delivers the drama in Designated Survivor, a fast-paced, quickly engrossing escapist political action fantasy.”[59] Metacritic reported a score of 71 out of 100 based on 35 reviews, indicating “generally favorable reviews”.[60]

    Terri Schwartz from IGN gave the first episode a rating of 8.0/10, saying, “Designated Survivor is a strong debut for a show that will fit well alongside Quantico and Scandal in ABC’s government-set political drama lineup.”[61] Variety said that the episode “does everything it needs to, checking off the necessary boxes for the unwilling American hero-president in efficient, compelling scenes.”[62] Chuck Barney from Mercury News called the first episode “suspenseful”.[63] Writing for TV Insider, Matt Roush compared Designated Survivor with other series as he said “fall’s niftiest new drama has West Wing idealism, Homeland suspense and House of Cards political intrigue in its robust and compelling DNA.”[64] Zack Handlen from The A.V. Club wrote positively about the show and the premiere, praising Sutherland’s performance and commented on the symbol of Sutherland’s glasses as he said, “The glasses he’s wearing serve as a way to tell us this is a different kind of hero, but they’re also a form of camouflage, making it easier for us to understand why so many people would underestimate this man.”[65]

    The editors of TV Guide placed Designated Survivor first among the top ten picks for the most anticipated new shows of the 2016–17 season. In writer Alexander Zalben’s overall review, he pointed out the keys to one of the strongest pilots he had seen so far: “Designated Survivor is the rare show that delivers on the hype, and surpasses it,” and later stating “It’s shocking that a show can balance all of these elements, but credit a magnetic cast that hits the ground running, a crack script that makes the first hour feel like 10 minutes and, of course, Sutherland as the anchor that keeps it all grounded.” Zalben’s review concluded with this recommendation: “There’s a reason Designated Survivor wasn’t just the top pick across all of our Editors’ lists, but also on the list compiled from viewers’ Watchlist adds: this is a show that delivers on its premise, feels timely, and most importantly, is a ton of fun.”[66]

    On the other hand, after watching the first episode of the first season, The Guardian's Brian Moylan criticized the dialogue, writing in his review that “this drama needs dialogue that won’t make the citizenry’s eyeballs roll”, adding that the show features “meaningless platitudes” of a “we’re going to do this my way” attitude, and concluded by writing, “All we’re left with is a really great concept without the backing of a real leader behind it.” Moylan also wrote that “there’s not enough family tension for it to be a domestic drama, not enough government intrigue to make it a political show, and not enough investigation to make it a procedural.”[67] TVLine's Dave Nemetz drew references between Kirkman and Jack Bauer, Kiefer Sutherland’s role in drama thriller 24, writing that “Sutherland does a good job portraying Kirkman’s deep ambivalence about the situation he’s been handed. But when he has to play hardball with an Iranian ambassador, the tough talk comes too easily to him. It’s like Kirkman has been possessed by the ghost of Jack Bauer”. Nemetz also questioned the series’ longevity; “As compelling as Designated Survivor's concept is, it’s hard to see how it will sustain itself as a weekly series”.[68]

    On Rotten Tomatoes, Season 2 of the series holds an approval rating of 60% based on 10 reviews, with an average rating of 5.92/10. The website’s critical consensus reads, “Kiefer Sutherland remains commanding enough in Designated Survivor to get him re-elected, but this White House series’ escalating earnestness may strike viewers as glaringly naive.”[69]

    On Rotten Tomatoes, Season 3 of the series holds an approval rating of 60% based on 5 reviews, with an average rating of 6.7/10.[70]


    The first episode set a record for DVR viewers with 7.67 million, surpassing the September 25, 2014, record of almost 7 million set by the pilot of How to Get Away with Murder.[71][72]

    Designated Survivor : U.S. viewers per episode (millions)Audience measurement performed by Nielsen Media Research.[73]



    A South Korean remake, developed by Studio Dragon and produced by DK E&M, is set to premiere on tvN on July 1, 2019.[78][79] Ji Jin-hee will portray the lead role.[80]


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  • ^ Iannucci, Rebecca (May 17, 2016). “ABC’s Designated Survivor Trailer Debuts — Plus: Watch Previews for Conviction, Notorious and More”. TVLine. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  • ^ Patten, Dominic (July 20, 2016). “Comic-Con: ‘Walking Dead,’ ‘Dr. Strange,’ Conan & ‘Designated Survivor’ Loom Large”. Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  • ^ “Designated Survivor: Season 1 (2016)”. Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  • ^ “Designated Survivor : Season 1”. Metacritic. Archived from the original on September 30, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  • ^ Schwartz, Terri (July 24, 2016). “Comic-Con 2016: Designated Survivor – “Pilot” Review”. IGN. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  • ^ Sarayia, Sonia (September 13, 2016). “TV Review: ‘Designated Survivor'”. Variety. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  • ^ Barney, Chuck (September 6, 2016). “Fall TV 2016: 10 must-see new shows”. Mercury News. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  • ^ Roush, Matt (September 14, 2016). “Roush Review: In a Fall Full of Remakes, A Few New Shows Shine”. TV Insider. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  • ^ Handlen, Zack (September 21, 2016). “Designated Survivor finds a likely hero in an unlikely place”. The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  • ^ Zalben, Alexander (September 16, 2016). “Our 10 Most Anticipated New TV Shows of Fall 2016”. TV Guide. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  • ^ Moylan, Brian (September 21, 2016). “Designated Survivor review – Kiefer Sutherland winds up president of cliche”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  • ^ Nemetz, Dave (September 16, 2016). “Designated Survivor Review: POTUSing Comes Too Easily for Kiefer Sutherland”. TVLine. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  • ^ “Designated Survivor: Season 2 (2017)”. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  • ^ “Designated Survivor: Season 3 (2019)”. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  • ^ Porter, Rick (October 4, 2016). “‘Designated Survivor’ is your premiere week DVR champion: Broadcast Live +7 ratings”. TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on October 4, 2016. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  • ^ Kissell, Rick (September 30, 2014). “ABC’s ‘How to Get Away With Murder’ Premiere Sets DVR Playback Record”. Variety. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  • ^ For the first season, see “Designated Survivor: Season One Ratings”. TV Series Finale. Retrieved January 17, 2018.

    For the second season, see “Designated Survivor: Season Two Ratings”. TV Series Finale. Retrieved January 17, 2018.

  • ^ Zalben, Alexander (September 16, 2016). “Fall TV Shows 2016: Most Anticipated – Editors’ Picks – Today’s News: Our Take”. TV Guide. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  • ^ Prudom, Laura (September 7, 2016). “Critics Choice Awards 2016 Most Exciting New Series: Westworld, Pitch”. Variety. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  • ^ Hipes, Patrick (November 15, 2016). “People’s Choice Awards Nominees 2017 — Full List”. Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 27, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  • ^ McNary, Dave (March 2, 2017). “Saturn Awards Nominations 2017: ‘Rogue One,’ ‘Walking Dead’ Lead”. Variety. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  • ^ “Designated Survivor: 60 Days, A Korean Adaptation of Designated Survivor, Comes to Netflix in Summer”. Netflix Media Center. May 7, 2019. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  • ^ “‘하나뿐인 내편’ 제작사 대표 “공감의 힘, 온 가족이 볼 수 있는 드라마””.
  • ^ “Ji Jin Hee To Play Leading Role In tvN’s Korean Remake Of U.S. Series “Designated Survivor””. Soompi. January 7, 2019.
  • External links[edit]

    • Official website
    • Designated Survivor on IMDb

    Philosophical Investigations (disambiguation)

    Philosophical Investigations is a book by Wittgenstein.

    Philosophical Investigations may also refer to:


    • Philosophical Investigations (journal), an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell
    • A book series covering diverse subjects in Applied Philosophy published by Routledge
    • Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, an academic journal published by Addleton Academic
    • “Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom”, a book by Friedrich Schelling


    • A Philosophical Investigation, a novel by Philip Kerr


    A performance act by Linda Phillimore reading her poem “Philosophical Investigation #76”

    .mw-parser-output table.dmbox{clear:both;margin:0.9em 1em;border-top:1px solid #ccc;border-bottom:1px solid #ccc;background-color:transparent}

    Rape investigation

    Rape investigation is the procedure to gather facts about a suspected rape, including forensic identification of a perpetrator, type of rape and other details.

    The vast majority of rapes are committed by persons known to the victim: only between five and 15 percent of assaults are perpetrated by a stranger.[1] Therefore, the identity of the perpetrator is frequently reported. Biological evidence such as semen, blood, vaginal secretions, saliva, vaginal epithelial cells may be identified and genetically typed by a crime lab. The information derived from the analysis can often help determine whether sexual contact occurred, provide information regarding the circumstances of the incident, and be compared to reference samples collected from patients and suspects.[2] Medical personnel in many countries collect evidence for potential rape cases by using rape kits. The time it takes to have rape kits processed has been criticized.[3]


    • 1 Perpetrator identification
      • 1.1 DNA profiling
    • 2 Circumstances and type of rape
    • 3 See also
    • 4 References

    Perpetrator identification[edit]

    DNA profiling[edit]

    Further information: DNA profiling

    DNA profiling is used by crime laboratories for testing biological evidence, most commonly by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allows analysis of samples of limited quality and quantity by making millions of copies. An advanced form of PCR testing called short tandem repeats (STR) generates a DNA profile that can be compared to DNA from a suspect or a crime scene. Blood, buccal (inner cheek) swabbings or saliva should also be collected from victims to distinguish their DNA from that of suspects.[2]

    Criminals may plant fake DNA samples at crime scenes. In one case Dr. John Schneeberger, who raped one of his sedated patients and left semen on her underwear, surgically inserted a Penrose drain into his arm and filled it with foreign blood and anticoagulants. Police drew what they believed to be Schneeberger’s blood and compared DNA on three occasions without a match.

    Circumstances and type of rape[edit]

    Abrasions, bruises and lacerations on the victim help elucidate how a rape was carried out. 8 to 45 percent of victims show evidence of external trauma, most commonly at the mouth, throat, wrists, arms, breasts and thighs: trauma to these sites comprise approximately two thirds of injuries, while trauma to the vagina and perineum account for approximately 20 percent.[4]

    Recent coitus can be determined by performing a vaginal wet-mount microscopy examination (or oral/anal if indicated) for detection of motile sperm, which are seen on the slide if less than three hours have elapsed since ejaculation. However, only one-third of sexual assaults result in ejaculation into a body orifice.[4] Further, the alleged assailant may have had a vasectomy or have experienced sexual dysfunction (roughly 50 percent of assailants suffer from impotence or ejaculatory dysfunction).[4] In addition, acid phosphatase levels in high concentrations is a good indicator of recent coitus. Acid phosphatase is found in prostatic secretions and activity decreases with time and is usually absent after 24 hours.[4] Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may be detected within a 48-hour period. The seminal fluid of vasectomized men also contains a significant PSA level. Nonmotile sperm may be detected even beyond 72 hours after intercourse depending on staining techniques.[4]

    It was held by the Chandhigarh High Court [India] as reported in 2006 Volume No. [2] Name of Legal Monthly Publication -Acquittal Page No. 199 – Chandhigarh High Court – Dilip Rao sahib Deshmukh, J. – Bablu @ Uday Vs. State of Chandhigarh – Criminal Appeal No. 412 of 2006 – Decided on 27.7.2006 – Where in a rape case doctor’s found hymen intact, merely because doctors stated that partial penetration was possible, no such inference could be drawn in favor of the prosecution and the conviction in the rape case was set aside by the High Court.

    See also[edit]

    • Effects and aftermath of rape
    • Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims
    • Rape
    • Rape kit
    • Sexual assault


  • ^ “Most Victims Know Their Attacker.” National Institute of Justice, 1 Oct. 2008. Archive
  • ^ a b A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Archived 2011-07-08 at the Wayback Machine National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS). September 2004
  • ^ (5 January 2015) New hope for rape kit testing advocates BBC News Magazine, Retrieved 5 January 2015
  • ^ a b c d e Emergency Management of the Adult Female Rape Victim. American Family Physician, June, 1991. by Diane K. Beebe[reference is 26-years-old]

  • Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority

    Template:Chief Commissioner of CIAA Nepal

    The Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA) (देवनागरी: अख्तियार दुरुपयोग अनुसन्धान आयोग) is an apex constitutional body for corruption control for the Government of Nepal. Constitution of Nepal has empowered CIAA to investigate and probe cases against the persons holding any public office and their associates who are indulged in the abuse of authority by way of corruption.[1]

    Hon. Navin Kumar Ghimire is the Chief Commissioner of the Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA).

    Corruption within the oversight agency[edit]

    Commissioner Raj Narayan Pathak resigned on February 15, 2019 after news reports of corruption surfaced. He is said to have taken 8.7 million rupees as bribe to settle corruption claim in Nepal Engineering College.[2] There have been other instances of employees and commissioners using the oversight agency as a tool for their own benefit.

    See also[edit]

    • Commissioners of Nepal


  • ^ “CIAA Official Website” cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ “Raj Narayan Pathak resigns after news reports of corruption surfaces. He is said to have 8.7 million rupees as bribe to settle corruption claim in Nepal Engineering College”. Onlinekhabar. Retrieved 15 February 2019.

  • Aeroflot Flight 1492

    Aviation accident in Moscow on 5 May 2019

    Aeroflot Flight 1492 was a scheduled passenger flight from Moscow–Sheremetyevo to Murmansk, Russia. On 5 May 2019, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft operating the flight was climbing after take-off when it was struck by lightning. The radio and other equipment failed, and the flight crew made an emergency landing at Sheremetyevo. Flight 1492 bounced on landing and touched down hard, causing the undercarriage to collapse and a fire to erupt, which quickly engulfed the rear of the aircraft. Forty-one of the 78 occupants died, as they were unable to evacuate in time.


    • 1 Aircraft
    • 2 Accident
    • 3 Victims
    • 4 Investigation
    • 5 Aftermath
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links


    The aircraft was a Russian-manufactured Sukhoi Superjet 100 with the registration RA-89098 and MSN (manufacturer’s serial number) 95135, which first flew in 2017.[1] It was delivered to Aeroflot on 27 September 2017.[2]


    Flight 1492 took off from Sheremetyevo International Airport for Murmansk Airport on 5 May 2019 at 18:02 local time (15:02 UTC). The aircraft was struck by lightning while climbing through 6,900 ft (2,100 m). The strike caused some of the aircraft’s electronic equipment to malfunction, including the autopilot and radio, and the flight crew were unable to maintain two-way communication with air traffic control. The strike was reported via a distress call to controllers at Sheremetyevo Airport with pilots stating; “Requesting return. 1492, lost radio contact and the plane is burning in lightning.”[3] At the time, cumulonimbus clouds were observed in the vicinity of the airport with a base of 6,000 ft (1,800 m).[4]

    The aircraft stopped its climb at flight level 100 (approx. 10,000 ft or 3,000 m above sea level) and came around to land at Sheremetyevo. It overshot the approach path, completed a circle and inititiated a second approach for runway 24L.[1] The transponder code was changed to 7600 (to indicate radio failure) at 15:11 UTC and subsequently to 7700 (emergency) at 15:25 UTC, while Flight 1492 was on final approach.[5] The aircraft bounced on landing, and after the fourth touchdown, the landing gear collapsed and a fire erupted, which quickly engulfed the wings, rear fuselage and empennage. The aircraft slid down the runway, veered to the left and came to a standstill on the grass between two adjoining taxiways, about 27 minutes after take-off.[1] [6]

    An evacuation was carried out from the front passenger doors and their slides were deployed. Aeroflot claims the evacuation took 55 seconds, though video shows the slides still in use 70 seconds after their deployment.[7] The rear half of the aircraft was destroyed by the fire, which was extinguished about 45 minutes after landing.[4][8][9] Of the five crew and 73 passengers, there were 37 survivors; 41 occupants, including one crew member, died.[10] Forty of the victims were Russian and one was American.[11][12]

    During the evacuation, passengers were seen carrying hand luggage down the evacuation slides, leading to speculation that passengers retrieving their luggage delayed the evacuation.[13][14][7][15] According to TASS’s law enforcement source, the majority of passengers in the tail end of the aircraft had practically no chance of rescue, many of them did not even have time to unfasten their seat belts. He added that those passengers from the tail section of the aircraft who managed to escape had moved to the front of the aircraft even before it stopped, and that he had no confirmation that retrieval of luggage had slowed the evacuation.[16] Speculation that the observed retrieval of luggage caused an evacuation delay was also refuted by witnesses.[17][18][19][15]


    The accident killed 41 people (40 passengers and 1 flight attendant). 26 of them were residents of the Murmansk region.[20] In addition to the 40 Russian victims, one US citizen was killed.[21]


    The Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC) opened an investigation into the accident. The French BEA is participating as representative of the state of design of the aircraft engine and EASA will offer technical advice to BEA.[22][23] On 6 May 2019, the IAC said in a press release that both flight recorders had been recovered. The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) was found in satisfactory condition, but the flight data recorder (FDR) casing was damaged by exposure to extremely high temperatures and IAC specialists were working to extract the data.[4] BBC News reported the investigation is considering the possibility of pilot error in view of several non-standard features of the flight, including the landing.[24]

    A criminal investigation was opened into a fatal “violation of the rules of safe movement and exploitation of air transport”. The Investigative Committee said on 6 May it was considering insufficient skill of the pilots, dispatchers and those who performed the technical inspection of the plane, along with mechanical problems and poor weather, as a possible cause of the accident.[25] A high-ranking law enforcement source told that experts would examine the actions of Sheremetyevo’s fire and rescue service. The source said air traffic control were late with raising the alarm and fire engines had not left the fire station at the time of the accident. Only two of the six available engines were involved within the first six minutes and they were not filled with foam, which is more effective against a fuel-fed fire than water. Experts will have to answer more than 50 questions.[26]


    On 6 May 2019, Aeroflot announced that they would compensate surviving passengers and the families of the deceased. One million rubles (US $17141) were to be paid to passengers that did not require hospitalization, two million rubles (US $34282) to passengers who were hospitalized and five million rubles (US $85704) were to be paid to families.[27]

    On 5 May, a petition to ground Superjet 100 during the investigation was created on By May 8, it was signed by 140,000 people and Kremlin Press Secretary Dmitry Peskov commented that the decision should be taken by “competent aviation authorities” and not by citizens who sign petitions on the portal.[28][29] The Ministry of Transport of Russia decided against grounding the Superjet 100, stating there was no obvious sign of a design flaw.[24] Aeroflot cancelled approximately 50 Superjet flights in the week following the accident. Kommersant cited industry sources as saying the Superjet 100 had lower dispatch reliability than Airbus and Boeing aircraft in the airline’s fleet historically and attributed a rise in cancellations to “increased safety measures” at Aeroflot while the accident is investigated.[30][31]

    On 6 May, Russian regional carrier Yamal Airlines announced that it was cancelling its remaining order of 10 Sukhoi Superjet 100s because of high maintenance costs. At the time, Yamal was the second largest Superjet operator in Russia after Aeroflot with 15 aircraft in its fleet.[32][relevant? – discuss]

    On 15 May, Mexican low cost airline Interjet announced that it is selling 20 Sukhoi Superjet because, due to its size, it is no longer profitable to operate them in Mexico.[33] Interjet was the biggest Sukhoi Superjet 100 operator outside Russia with 22 aircraft in its fleet.[34][relevant? – discuss]

    See also[edit]

    • 2010s portal
    • Aviation portal
    • Disasters portal
    • Death portal
    • Moscow portal
    • 2012 Mount Salak Sukhoi Superjet crash
    • 2019 in aviation
    • 2019 in Russia
    • Aeroflot accidents and incidents
    • List of accidents and incidents involving airliners by location#Russia
    • List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft


  • ^ a b c “Aircraft accident Sukhoi Superjet 100-95B RA-89098 Moskva-Sheremetyevo Airport (SVO)”. Aviation Safety Network. 8 May cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ “RA-89098 Aeroflot – Russian Airlines Sukhoi Superjet 100”. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  • ^ News, A. B. C. “Crashed Russian plane communication leaks: ‘The plane is burning in lightning'”. ABC News. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  • ^ a b c Hradecky, Simon (6 May 2019). “Accident: Aeroflot SU95 at Moscow on May 5th 2019, aircraft bursts into flames during rollout and burns down”. The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  • ^ @flightradar24 (6 May 2019). “Flightradar24 tweet regarding squawk codes of SU1492” (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  • ^ “41 Confirmed Dead After Russian Aeroflot Plane Lands With Fire On Board”. The New Times. 5 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ a b Kaminski-Morrow, David (9 May 2019). “ANALYSIS: Superjet fire puts focus on evacuation threat”.
  • ^ “Aeroflot indicates Superjet engines caught fire on landing”. Flight Global. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  • ^ {{cite news |url= |title=Aeroflot plane crash: Russia jet ‘struck by lightning’ |work=BBC News |access-date=6 May 2019
  • ^ Troianovski, Anton; Fritz, Angela; Ferris-Rotman, Amie (5 May 2019). “Russian passenger jet catches fire on runway in Moscow, killing 41 people”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  • ^ “41 жертва трагедии в аэропорту Шереметьево 05.05.2019” [41 victims of the tragedy at Sheremetevo Airport 05/05/2019]. Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  • ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (5 May 2019). “Aeroflot Plane Makes Fiery Emergency Landing in Russia, Killing 41”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  • ^ “Were lives lost at the cost of carry-ons in Aeroflot plane crash that killed 41?”. USA TODAY.
  • ^ Mzezewa, Tariro (6 May 2019). “In the Event of an Emergency, Leave Your Luggage on the Plane. Really”. Retrieved 14 May 2019 – via
  • ^ a b “What We Know About the Deadly Aeroflot Superjet Crash Landing”. The Moscow Times. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ “Данные о проблемах с эвакуацией из SSJ-100 из-за ручной клади не подтвердились”. TASS (in Russian). 11 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  • ^ “ТАСС: версия о спасении багажа из сгоревшего SSJ-100 ценой жизней людей не подтвердилась”. (in Russian). 11 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  • ^ “«Я снял, как горел наш самолёт»: пассажир Sukhoi Superjet 100 рассказал о смертельном рейсе” [”I shot movie while our plane was burning”: a passenger of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 told about the deadly flight] (in Russian). 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  • ^ “”Я смотрел в иллюминатор и думал: мы сейчас взорвемся или нет?”” [”I looked out the window and thought: are we going to explode or not?”]. Сибирь. Реалии (in Russian). Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ “«Мама, мы взлетаем»: как один полет прервал жизнь пассажиров SSJ-100”. Газета.Ru.
  • ^ “Jeremy Brooks of New Mexico ID’d as American killed in Russia plane crash”. ABC11 Raleigh-Durham. 6 May 2019.
  • ^ “Франция включилась в расследование ЧП с SSJ100 как разработчик двигателя”. РИА Новости. 14 May 2019.
  • ^ BEA. “Accident to the Sukhoi RRJ95 registered RA-89098 and operated by Aeroflot on 05/05/2019 at Moscow [Investigation led by MAK / Russia]”. BEA – Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la sécurité de l’aviation civile.
  • ^ a b “Aeroflot plane crash: Pilot error theory probed”. BBC. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  • ^ Luhn, Alec (7 May 2019). “Russia to investigate whether pilot error caused fiery emergency landing that killed 37”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ “Раскрыты ошибки спасателей при тушении SSJ-100”. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  • ^ “Aeroflot to pay compensation to all passengers, victim’s families after plane crash”. TASS (in Russian). Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  • ^ “Песков: приостановить эксплуатацию Sukhoi Superjet могут только авиационные органы”. ТАСС.
  • ^ “Петицию за запрет полетов SSJ 100 подписали больше 130 000 человек – Общество”. 7 May 2019.
  • ^ “SSJ 100 придержали на земле” – via Kommersant.
  • ^ “Russia’s Aeroflot Cancels Dozens of Flights Following Tragic Plane Crash”. The Moscow Times. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ “Russian Airline Cancels Sukhoi Superjet Order After Fatal Crash Landing – Reports”. The Moscow Times. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ Cartera, Sara (15 May 2019). “Interjet venderá 20 aviones Sukhoi”. El Universal. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ “Sukhoi not-so-super jet. What is SSJ-100 crashed in Sheremetyevo?”. Crime Russia. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • External links[edit]

    • RRJ-95B RA-89098 05.05.2019 – Interstate Aviation Committee – Russian version
    • Aeroflot news releases
      • Passenger list and survivor list
      • Aeroflot confirms engine fire on flight SU1492 Moscow–Murmansk 5 May 2019
    • Flightradar24 data regarding Aeroflot flight 1492
    • Full video