Knives Out (movie).

2019 film directed by Rian Johnson

Knives Out is a 2019 American mystery film written, produced, and directed by Rian Johnson. A modern whodunit, the film follows a family gathering gone awry, after the family patriarch’s death leads a master detective to investigate. The film features an ensemble cast, including Daniel Craig, Chris Evans, Ana de Armas, Jamie Lee Curtis, Michael Shannon, Don Johnson, Toni Collette, Lakeith Stanfield, Katherine Langford, Jaeden Martell, and Christopher Plummer.

Knives Out had its world premiere at the 2019 Toronto International Film Festival on September 7, 2019, and was theatrically released in the United States on November 27, 2019, by Lionsgate. The film received critical acclaim, particularly for its screenplay, plot, direction, ensemble cast, humor, and performances. The film appeared on over 150 top ten lists that year. As of January 2020, the film has grossed $266 million worldwide against a $40 million budget. At the 77th Golden Globe Awards, the film received three nominations in the Musical or Comedy category: Best Motion Picture, Best Actor for Craig, and Best Actress for de Armas. It also received a Best Original Screenplay nomination at the 73rd British Academy Film Awards[7] and 92nd Academy Awards.[8]


  • 1 Plot
  • 2 Cast
  • 3 Production
  • 4 Release
  • 5 Reception
    • 5.1 Box office
    • 5.2 Critical response
    • 5.3 Accolades
  • 6 Sequel
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links


Wealthy crime novelist Harlan Thrombey invites his family to his mansion for his 85th birthday party. The next morning, Harlan’s housekeeper Fran finds him dead, with his throat slit. The police are convinced that Harlan’s death is a suicide, but an anonymous party pays private detective Benoit Blanc to investigate.

Blanc learns that Harlan had alienated many of his family: he had threatened to expose his son-in-law Richard for having an affair, cut off his daughter-in-law Joni’s allowance for stealing from him, fired his youngest son Walt from his publishing company, and cut his grandson Ransom out of his will.

Unknown to Blanc, after the party, Harlan’s nurse, Marta Cabrera, accidentally administered him an overdose of morphine instead of his usual pain medication, leaving Harlan minutes to live. Harlan gave Marta instructions to create a false alibi to avoid suspicion for causing his death; he then slit his own throat. Marta carried out Harlan’s instructions but was seen by Harlan’s elderly mother, who mistook her for Ransom.

Marta cannot lie without vomiting, so she gives true but incomplete answers when Blanc questions her. Blanc asks her to assist his investigation. As they search the property, Marta attempts to conceal evidence.

At the reading of Harlan’s will, the family discovers that he left everything to Marta. They turn on her, but Ransom helps her escape. Ransom persuades Marta to confess to him and offers to help her in exchange for his share of the inheritance. The other Thrombeys realize that, under the slayer rule, Marta will lose the inheritance if she is responsible for Harlan’s death. They try to persuade Marta to renounce her inheritance; Walt threatens to expose her mother as an undocumented immigrant.

Marta receives an anonymous blackmail note with a partial photocopy of Harlan’s toxicology report. She and Ransom drive to the medical examiner’s office, but it has been destroyed in a fire. Marta receives an email with a time and address to meet the blackmailer. When Blanc spots her and Ransom, Marta speeds away. The police catch them and arrest Ransom; Blanc explains that Harlan’s mother saw Ransom climbing down from Harlan’s room on the night of his death.

Marta goes to the address in the email and discovers Fran drugged. She performs CPR on Fran and calls 911. Marta confesses to Blanc, but Ransom has already informed on her. At the house, Marta finds a copy of the full toxicology report hidden in Fran’s cannabis stash. Marta is about to confess to the family that she caused Harlan’s death, but Blanc interrupts her after reading the report.

Blanc reveals his deductions to Marta, Ransom, and the police: After Ransom learned at the party that Harlan was leaving everything to Marta, he swapped the contents of Marta’s medication vials and stole the antidote so she would kill Harlan with an overdose of morphine, making her ineligible to claim the inheritance. However, Marta actually administered the correct medicine without reading the labels, and is therefore innocent of Harlan’s death. After the death was reported as a suicide, Ransom anonymously hired Blanc to discover Marta’s guilt. Fran later saw Ransom returning the antidote to Marta’s medical case, and sent him the blackmail note. Realizing that Marta had instinctively, but unknowingly, given Harlan the correct medication, Ransom forwarded the blackmail note to Marta. He burned down the medical examiner’s office and burned Fran’s copy of the toxicology report, destroying evidence of Marta’s innocence. Finally, he drugged Fran with morphine and emailed her location to Marta, planning to frame Marta for Fran’s murder.

In order to trick Ransom into confessing, Marta lies that Fran has survived and will implicate him; after he confesses and vows revenge, she vomits on him, revealing the lie. Enraged, he attacks her with a knife but discovers it is a retractable stage knife. As Ransom is taken into custody, Marta watches the Thrombeys from what is now her mansion.


  • Daniel Craig as Benoit Blanc: a private detective called upon to investigate Harlan’s murder
  • Chris Evans as Hugh Ransom Drysdale: Harlan’s grandson, Linda and Richard’s son, and a spoiled playboy who is hated by his own family
  • Ana de Armas as Marta Cabrera: Harlan’s nurse and caretaker who had a close relationship with him
  • Jamie Lee Curtis as Linda Drysdale: Harlan’s eldest daughter and Richard’s wife. She is a real estate mogul who runs her own company with her husband’s support
  • Michael Shannon as Walter “Walt” Thrombey: Harlan’s youngest son, Donna’s husband, and the CEO of his father’s publishing company
  • Don Johnson as Richard Drysdale: Harlan’s son-in-law and Linda’s husband, who helps run his wife’s company
  • Toni Collette as Joni Thrombey: a lifestyle guru and influencer and the widow of Harlan’s deceased son, Neil
  • Lakeith Stanfield as Detective Lieutenant Elliot: a local detective involved in the investigation
  • Katherine Langford as Megan “Meg” Thrombey: Harlan’s granddaughter, Joni and Neil’s daughter, who studies at a prestigious liberal arts college (Smith College)
  • Jaeden Martell as Jacob Thrombey: Harlan’s grandson, Walt and Donna’s son, who holds alt-right views and is always on his phone
  • Christopher Plummer as Harlan Thrombey: a wealthy mystery novelist who invites his family to his 85th birthday party and is later found dead. He has three children — Linda, Walt and deceased Neil
  • Noah Segan as Trooper Wagner: a police officer involved with the investigation
  • Edi Patterson as Fran: Harlan’s housekeeper, who discovers his body
  • Riki Lindhome as Donna Thrombey: Harlan’s daughter-in-law and Walt’s wife
  • K Callan as Wanetta “Great Nana” Thrombey: Harlan’s elderly mother
  • Frank Oz as Alan Stevens: Harlan’s lawyer
  • M. Emmet Walsh as Mr. Proofroc, the groundskeeper
  • Marlene Forte as Mrs. Cabrera: Marta’s mother
  • Shyrley Rodriguez as Alice Cabrera: Marta’s sister
  • Raúl Castillo as a cop
  • Joseph Gordon-Levitt as Detective Hardrock: Gordon-Levitt appears in a cameo role, through his voice only.


Several scenes are set in Maynard, Massachusetts. The car chase scene goes through the Assabet Woolen Mill (pictured), now known as Clock Tower Place.

After making the 2005 film Brick, writer and director Rian Johnson came up with the basic concept for Knives Out.[9] In June 2010, he expressed interest in making an Agatha Christie-inspired murder mystery film. He told The Independent that he wanted to make the film after finishing Looper (2012).[10] However, Johnson’s next film project became Star Wars: The Last Jedi (2017).[11] Johnson spent seven months writing the script after finishing his press tour for Star Wars: The Last Jedi.[12]

In developing the film, Johnson cited several classic mystery thrillers and mystery comedies as influences, including The Last of Sheila, Murder on the Orient Express, Something’s Afoot, Murder by Death, Death on the Nile, The Private Eyes, The Mirror Crack’d, Evil Under the Sun, Deathtrap, Clue, and Gosford Park.[13] The 1972 version of Sleuth, a favorite “whodunit adjacent” of Johnson’s, was also an inspiration, particularly for the setting and set design, including the automata, Jolly Jack the Sailor.[14][15][16] The title was taken from the 2001 Radiohead song “Knives Out”; Johnson, a Radiohead fan, said: “Obviously, the movie has nothing to do with the song … That turn of phrase has always stuck in my head. And it just seemed like a great title for a murder mystery.”[17] The name Harlan Thrombey is taken from a 1981 Choose Your Own Adventure whodunit, Who Killed Harlowe Thrombey?[18]

Knives Out was announced in September 2018, with Daniel Craig starring. It was sold to distributors during the 2018 Toronto International Film Festival.[19] In October 2018, Chris Evans, Lakeith Stanfield, Michael Shannon, Ana de Armas, Don Johnson, Jamie Lee Curtis, and Toni Collette joined the cast.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26] In November 2018, Christopher Plummer, Jaeden Martell, Katherine Langford, Riki Lindhome, Edi Patterson, and Raúl Castillo joined the cast.[27][28][29] Frequent Johnson collaborator Noah Segan was announced as being in the film in December.[30][31] In March 2019, Frank Oz, who previously worked with Johnson in The Last Jedi, revealed that he would be appearing in a small role.[32] M. Emmet Walsh was cast in the film to replace Ricky Jay, who had died during production.[33]

Principal photography began on October 30, 2018, in Boston, Massachusetts and wrapped on December 20, 2018.[34][35][36] Filming locations included Easton, Marlborough, Massachusetts, Natick, Wellesley, Maynard, Massachusetts, Waltham, and Medfield.[37][38][39][40][41] The exteriors of the house were filmed at a mansion located in the Hunnewell Estates Historic District, in Wellesley and Natick, about 17 miles west of Boston.[42] The Ames Mansion in Borderland State Park, Massachusetts, was used for many interior shots.[43][42]

Nathan Johnson composed the film score. He previously worked with director Rian Johnson, who is his cousin, on Brick and Looper. The soundtrack was released on November 27, 2019 coinciding with the film’s release, by Cut Narrative Records.[44]


Knives Out had its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 7, 2019.[45] It was theatrically released on November 27, 2019, by Lionsgate.[46] Director Rian Johnson released an “in-theater” audio commentary for those watching the film a second time.[47]


Box office[edit]

As of January 14, 2020[update], Knives Out has grossed $139.9 million in the United States and Canada, and $126 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $266 million.[5][6]

In the United States and Canada, the film was released alongside Queen & Slim, and was initially projected to gross $22–25 million from 3,391 theaters over its five-day opening weekend.[48] The film held advance screenings on November 22 and 23, making $2 million from 936 theaters.[49] It then made $8.5 million (including the $2 million from the screenings and $1.7 million from Tuesday night previews) and $6.8 million on Thanksgiving Day, increasing estimates to $44 million. It went on to gross $27.2 million in its opening weekend (a five-day total of $41.7 million), finishing second behind Frozen II.[50] In its second and third weekends the film made $14.2 million and $9.3 million, remaining in second then finishing third.[51][52] The film made $6.5 million in its fourth weekend and then $9.7 million in its fifth (and a total of $16.6 million over the five-day Christmas frame).[53][54]

Critical response[edit]

On the review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 97% based on 414 reviews, with an average rating of 8.32/10. The website’s critics’ consensus reads: “Knives Out sharpens old murder-mystery tropes with a keenly assembled suspense outing that makes brilliant use of writer-director Rian Johnson’s stellar ensemble.”[55] Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 82 out of 100, based on reviews from 52 critics, indicating “universal acclaim”.[56] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of “A–” on an A+ to F scale, while those at PostTrak gave it an average 4.5 out of 5 stars, with 67% saying they would definitely recommend it.[50]

David Rooney, writing for The Hollywood Reporter, described the film as an “ingeniously plotted, tremendously entertaining and deviously irreverent crowd-pleaser” and “a treat from start to finish”, praising the film’s script, the throwbacks to the murder mysteries of the 1970s, and the actors’ performances.[57] Dana Stevens of Slate wrote “Knives Out knows exactly what kind of movie it is: a sendup of twisty murder mysteries with all-star ensemble casts that also loves and respects that silly tradition.”[58] For The A.V. Club, A. A. Dowd called the film “madly entertaining” and “an ingenious sleight-of-hand crowdpleaser”.[59] David Ehrlich of IndieWire gave the film an A-, writing “Johnson has devised a murder-mystery that’s eager to defy your expectations, but unwilling to betray your trust. The film may be more smart than stylish, and it may opt for a reasonable outcome over an overwhelmingly shocking one, but Knives Out doesn’t let the element of surprise ruin a good story.”[60] David Sims of The Atlantic wrote that he “turned the whodunit on its head”.[61] Dani di Placido of Forbes wrote that Johnson “finds a way to revitalise the concept” and “makes murder mystery great again”.[62]

It was chosen by the American Film Institute, the National Board of Review, and Time magazine[63] as one of the top ten films of 2019 in each respective list.[64] On January 13, 2020 Knives Out received an Academy Award Best Original Screenplay nomination for Johnson. Director Edgar Wright also stated that Knives Out was his favorite film of the year and that it is “fiendishly plotted”.[65]



Before the release of Knives Out, Johnson said he would like to create sequels with Benoit Blanc investigating further mysteries, and already had an idea for a new film.[75] In January 2020, Johnson told The Hollywood Reporter he was developing a sequel intended to focus on Blanc investigating a new mystery, with Craig also stating interest in reprising the role.[76]


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  • External links[edit]

    • Official website
    • Knives Out on IMDb
    • Knives Out at Rotten Tomatoes

    Christine Keeler

    English model and showgirl

    Christine Margaret Keeler (22 February 1942 – 4 December 2017) was an English model and topless showgirl. Her meeting at a dance-club with society osteopath Stephen Ward drew her into fashionable circles. At the height of the Cold War, she became sexually involved with a married government minister, John Profumo, as well as with a Soviet naval attaché, Yevgeny Ivanov. A shooting incident between two of her other lovers caused the press to investigate her, revealing that her affairs could be threatening national security. In the House of Commons, Profumo denied any improper conduct but later admitted that he had lied. This incident discredited the Conservative government of Harold Macmillan in 1963, in what became known as the Profumo affair. Keeler was alleged to have been a prostitute – which was not a criminal offence. Ward was however found guilty of being her pimp – a trial instigated after the embarrassment caused to the government.


    • 1 Biography
      • 1.1 Early years
      • 1.2 Profumo affair
      • 1.3 Morley portrait
      • 1.4 Trials
      • 1.5 Later life
    • 2 Death
    • 3 In popular culture
    • 4 Publication
      • 4.1 By Keeler
      • 4.2 By others
    • 5 References
    • 6 Sources
    • 7 External links


    Early years[edit]

    Keeler was born in Uxbridge, Middlesex. Her father, Colin Keeler (later known as Colin King), abandoned the family in 1945. She was brought up by her mother, Julie Ellen Payne, and stepfather, Edward Huish, in a house made from two converted railway carriages in the Berkshire village of Wraysbury. In 1951, at the age of 9, Keeler was sent to a holiday home in Littlehampton because the school health inspector said that she was suffering from malnutrition.[2] She was sexually abused as a teenager both by her stepfather and his friends, for whom she babysat.[3] At the age of 15, she found work as a model at a dress shop in London’s Soho. At age 17, she gave birth to a son after an affair with an African-American United States Air Force sergeant. The child was born prematurely on 17 April 1959, and survived just six days.[4]

    That summer, Keeler left Wraysbury, staying briefly in Slough with a friend before heading for London. She initially worked as a waitress at a restaurant in Baker Street, where she met Maureen O’Connor, who worked at Murray’s Cabaret Club in Soho. She introduced Keeler to the owner, Percy Murray, who hired her almost immediately as a topless showgirl.[5]

    At Murray’s she met Stephen Ward, an English osteopath and artist. His practice and his art brought considerable social success, and he made many important friends. Soon the two were living together with the outward appearance of being a couple, but according to her, it was a platonic, non-sexual relationship.

    Profumo affair[edit]

    Main article: Profumo affair

    On the weekend of 8–9 July 1961, Ward introduced Keeler to John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War, at a pool party at Cliveden, the Buckinghamshire mansion owned by The 3rd Viscount Astor. ‘Jack’ Profumo began a brief affair with Keeler. The exact length of the affair between Keeler and Profumo is disputed, ending either in August 1961 once Profumo was warned by the security services of the possible dangers of mixing with the Ward circle, or continuing with decreasing fervour until December 1961.[6] Among Ward’s other friends, whom Profumo briefly met, was the Soviet naval attaché and GRU officer, Yevgeny Ivanov. According to Keeler, she and Ivanov had a short sexual relationship.[7]

    After her relationship with Profumo ended, Keeler was sexually involved with several partners, including jazz singer Aloysius “Lucky” Gordon and jazz promoter Johnny Edgecombe. There was considerable jealousy between the two men; in one quarrel on 27 October 1962, Edgecombe slashed Gordon’s face with a knife.[8] When Keeler ended the relationship with Edgecombe in December 1962, Edgecombe turned up at Ward’s house in Wimpole Mews on 14 December, where she was temporarily seeking refuge, and fired five shots at the building.[9] His arrest and subsequent trial brought Keeler to public attention and provided the impetus from which the scandal known as the “Profumo affair” developed.[10] After initially denying any impropriety with Keeler, Profumo eventually confessed and resigned from the government and parliament, causing great embarrassment to his government colleagues who had previously supported him.[11] These events, in the summer of 1963, brought Keeler notoriety; The Economist gave the headline “The Prime Minister’s Crisis” alongside a picture of Keeler, with no further explanation.[12]

    Morley portrait[edit]

    Lewis Morley’s 1963 portrait of Keeler

    At the height of the Profumo affair in 1963, Keeler sat for a photographic portrait taken by Lewis Morley. The photo shoot, at a studio on the first floor of Peter Cook’s Establishment Club, with Morley was to promote a proposed film, The Keeler Affair, that was never released in the United Kingdom. Keeler was reluctant to pose in the nude, but the film producers insisted. Morley persuaded Keeler to sit astride a plywood chair, so that whilst technically she would be nude, the back of the chair would obscure most of her body. Keeler told cartoon historian Tim Benson in 2007 that she was not nude and was, in fact, wearing knickers during the entire photoshoot.[13][14]

    The photo propelled Arne Jacobsen’s Model 3107 chair to prominence, even though the chair used was an imitation of the Model 3107, with a hand-hold aperture crudely cut out of the back to avoid copyright infringement. The chair used is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.[13] The differences in the designs of the chairs are readily apparent in a side-by-side photograph.[13]


    Keeler going to court in September 1963

    On 18 April 1963, Keeler was attacked at the home of a friend. She accused Gordon, who was arrested and charged. At his trial, which began on 5 June, he maintained that his innocence would be established by two witnesses who, the police told the court, could not be found. On 7 June, principally on the evidence of Keeler, Gordon was found guilty and sentenced to three years’ imprisonment.[15] By this time, Ward was facing trial on vice charges, and again Keeler was a main prosecution witness.[16]

    Ward’s trial, which ran from 22–31 July 1963, has been characterised as “an act of political revenge” for the embarrassment caused to the government. He was accused of living off immoral earnings earned through Keeler and Mandy Rice-Davies, on the basis of the small contributions to household expenses or loan repayments the two had made to Ward while living with him. Ward’s professional earnings as an osteopath were a substantial £5,500 a year (£115,300 in 2018) at the time these small payments were made.[17] After a hostile summing-up from the trial judge, Ward was convicted, but before the jury returned their verdict, he took an overdose of barbiturates and died before sentence could be passed.[18] In the closing days of Ward’s trial, Gordon’s assault conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeal when his missing witnesses were found and testified that the evidence given by Keeler was substantially false.[19] In December 1963, Keeler pleaded guilty to charges of perjury before Sir Anthony Hawke, the Recorder of London, and she was sentenced to nine months’ imprisonment, serving four and a half months in prison.[20]

    Later life[edit]

    Keeler (aged 46) discussing the Profumo affair on After Dark in 1988

    After her release from prison in 1964, Keeler had two brief marriages, to James Levermore in 1965–66 and to Anthony Platt in 1971–72. There was a child from each union, the eldest being largely raised by Keeler’s mother, Julie. Keeler mainly lived alone in the last couple of decades of her life. Most of the considerable amount of money that she made from newspaper stories was dissipated by lawyers. She said that during the 1970s “I was not living, I was surviving”.[21] She published several accounts of her life, in one of which she claimed that she became pregnant as a result of her relationship with Profumo and subsequently had an abortion.[22] Her portrait, by Ward, was acquired by the National Portrait Gallery in 1984.[23]

    In 1988, Keeler was featured in Bryan Ferry’s promotional video for the single “Kiss and Tell” (originally released on Ferry’s seventh solo album, Bête Noire, in 1987) with Mandy Rice-Davies; this was meant to draw more attention to the song’s theme.[24]

    In June 1988, she made an extended appearance on Channel 4 discussion programme After Dark.[25]


    On 5 December 2017, Keeler’s son Seymour Platt announced that his mother “passed away last night at about 11.30 pm” at the Princess Royal University Hospital in Locksbottom, in Bromley, Greater London.[26] She had been ill for some months, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,[26] and was aged 75. Her funeral took place on 16 December 2017 at the West London Crematorium in Kensal Green Cemetery.[27]

    In popular culture[edit]

    In the 1989 film about the Profumo affair, Scandal, actress Joanne Whalley portrays Keeler. In Andrew Lloyd Webber’s stage musical Stephen Ward, which opened at the Aldwych Theatre in 2013, Keeler was portrayed by Charlotte Spencer.[28]

    Keeler is portrayed by Sophie Cookson in The Trial of Christine Keeler, a 2019–2020 six-part BBC One television series.[29]

    An Arts Council-funded touring exhibition called ‘Dear Christine’ opened in Newcastle upon Tyne in June 2019[30] and toured to Swansea[31] in October 2019, finishing at Arthouse1 in London in February 2020[32]. The culmination of a four-year project by artist/curator Fionn Wilson to reclaim and reframe Keeler, it features work from 20 women artists “in order to put a female perspective on a narrative that has mostly been led by men” (Garageland, issue 22, ‘Difficult Women’, October 2018, ISBN 977-1-7499260-3-6). The exhibition has been described by journalist and writer Julie Burchill as “a thing of beauty without cruelty”[33]. Critic and writer Ian McKay wrote, “In several important ways, Dear Christine, the exhibition, seeks with some noble intent to rescue Christine’s image and experience and reprocess it, rescuing it from the newspaper front-page-Keeler that is etched into the collective consciousness”[34]. The exhibition has also featured in the Morning Star[35], the Daily Telegraph[36] and the International Times[37]. In the Wales Arts Review writer Craig Austin interviews artist/curator Fionn Wilson who says: “Christine Keeler has always fascinated me, since I first became aware of her story via the 1989 film Scandal. When I started painting I decided to do a series of paintings of her, and as I researched Christine’s life story it struck me that even though she is a culturally significant figure in British history there is very little recent artistic reference to her. I decided that I would try to rectify this and add to the visual narrative around her. And so the project was born. It’s also a very personal project. I have great sympathy for Christine Keeler.”[38] The exhibition catalogue (Dear Christine, April 2019, edited by Fionn Wilson, designed by Rebecca Fairman, .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 978-1-9161200-0-6) includes writing by Amanda Coe (screenwriter and executive producer of the BBC series The Trial of Christine Keeler), Keeler’s son Seymour Platt, art historian Kalliopi Minioudaki and artist and art critic Bo Gorzelak Pedersen.


    By Keeler[edit]

    • Keeler, Christine; Meadley, Robert (1985). Sex Scandals. Xanadu. ISBN 0-947761-03-9.
    • Keeler, Christine (1989). Scandal!. London: Xanadu. ISBN 0-947761-75-6. (Basis for the eponymous 1989 film.)
    • Basini, Richard; Keeler, Christine (1989). The Businessperson’s Guide to Intelligent Social Drinking. Congdon & Weed. ISBN 0-312-92070-9.
    • Keeler, Christine; Ivanov, Yevgeny; Sokolov, Gennady (1992). The Naked Spy. Blake. ISBN 1-85782-092-4.
    • Keeler, Christine; Thompson, Douglas (2001). The Truth at Last: My Story. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-07291-1.
    • Keeler, Christine; Thompson, Douglas (2012). Secrets and Lies. London: John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84358-755-2. (Updated version of 2001 book.)

    By others[edit]

    • Hanks, Tara (2004). Wicked Baby. PADB. ISBN 1-904929-45-1.
    • Nicholas, Paul; Holt, Alex; Adams, Gill (2007). Keeler. Stage Production. [ISBN unspecified]


  • ^ Thompson, Douglas (6 December 2017). “My friend Christine Keeler – the original femme fatale who felt she didn’t deserve to be happy”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  • ^ Kynaston 2009, p. 28.
  • ^ “Obituary: Christine Keeler”. BBC News. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  • ^ Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 53–54.
  • ^ Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 55–57.
  • ^ Irving et al. 1963, pp. 49–53.
  • ^ Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 66–70, 86–87.
  • ^ Davenport-Hines 2013, pp. 252–53, 258.
  • ^ Irving et al. 1963, p. 75.
  • ^ Young 1963, pp. 9–11.
  • ^ Young 1963, pp. 18, 24–25.
  • ^ Young 1963, p. 36.
  • ^ a b c “Christine Keeler Photograph: A Modern Icon”. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  • ^ “The Keeler Affair (1963)”. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  • ^ Irving et al. 1963, p. 148.
  • ^ Irving et al. 1963, pp. 193–94.
  • ^ Robertson 2013, pp. 80–81.
  • ^ Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 243–47.
  • ^ Robertson 2013, pp. 92–95, 101.
  • ^ Knightley & Kennedy 1987, p. 252.
  • ^ Knightley & Kennedy 1987, p. 256.
  • ^ Keeler & Thompson 2012, pp. 123, 134.
  • ^ Summers & Dorril 1989, p. 311.
  • ^ “Kiss And Tell”. SongFacts. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  • ^ “Open to Exposure”. After Dark. Series 2. 4 June 1988. Channel 4.
  • ^ a b Davies, Caroline (5 December 2017). “Christine Keeler, former model at heart of Profumo affair, dies at 75”. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  • ^ Mount, Harry (16 December 2017). “Freed from her demons, Sixties icon Christine Keeler is laid to rest”. The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  • ^ “Casting Announced for World Premiere of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Stephen Ward”. Playbill. 6 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  • ^ “The Trial of Christine Keeler”. BBC One. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • ^
  • Sources[edit]

    .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}

    • Davenport-Hines, Richard (2013). An English Affair: Sex, Class and Power in the Age of Profumo. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-743585-2.
    • Irving, Clive; Hall, Ron; Wallington, Jeremy (1963). Scandal ’63. London: Heinemann.[ISBN missing]
    • Keeler, Christine; Thompson, Douglas (2012). Secrets and Lies. London: John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84358-755-2.
    • Knightley, Phillip; Kennedy, Caroline (1987). An Affair of State: The Profumo Case and the Framing of Stephen Ward. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02347-0.
    • Kynaston, David (2009). Family Britain 1951–57. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780747583851.
    • Robertson, Geoffrey (2013). Stephen Ward Was Innocent OK: The Case for Overturning his Conviction. London: Biteback. ISBN 978-1-84954-690-4.
    • Summers, Anthony; Dorril, Stephen (1989). Honeytrap. London: Coronet Books. ISBN 0-340-42973-9.
    • Young, Wayland (1963). The Profumo Affair: Aspects of Conservatism. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.[ISBN missing]

    External links[edit]

    • Portraits of Christine Keeler at the National Portrait Gallery, London
    • Christine Keeler on IMDb 

    Jimmy Hoffa

    “James Hoffa” redirects here. For his son, see James P. Hoffa.
    American labor union leader (1913–1975)

    James Riddle Hoffa (born February 14, 1913; disappeared July 30, 1975, declared dead July 30, 1982) was an American labor union leader who served as the President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) union from 1957 until 1971.

    From an early age, Hoffa was a union activist and became an important regional figure with the IBT by his mid-20s. By 1952, he was national vice-president of the IBT and was its general president between 1957 and 1971. He secured the first national agreement for teamsters’ rates in 1964 with the National Master Freight Agreement. He played a major role in the growth and development of the union, which eventually became the largest (by membership) in the United States with over 2.3 million members at its peak, during his terms as its leader.

    Hoffa became involved with organized crime from the early years of his Teamsters work, and this connection continued until his disappearance in 1975. He was convicted of jury tampering, attempted bribery, conspiracy, mail and wire fraud in 1964, in two separate trials. He was imprisoned in 1967 and sentenced to 13 years. In mid-1971, he resigned as president of the union as part of a commutation agreement with President Richard Nixon, and he was released later that year, although he was barred from union activities until 1980. Hoffa, hoping to regain support and to return to IBT leadership, unsuccessfully attempted to overturn the order.

    Hoffa disappeared on July 30, 1975; his body was never found. He was declared legally dead in 1982.


    • 1 Early life and family
    • 2 Early union activity
    • 3 Growth of the Teamsters
    • 4 Hoffa’s rise to power
    • 5 Teamsters Union presidency
      • 5.1 Teamsters union expelled
      • 5.2 National Master Freight Agreement
    • 6 Criminal charges
      • 6.1 Prison sentences
      • 6.2 Appoints Fitzsimmons as caretaker president
    • 7 Post-prison
    • 8 Disappearance
      • 8.1 Prelude
      • 8.2 Events of July 30
      • 8.3 Investigation
    • 9 Other accounts and speculation
    • 10 Portrayal in the media
    • 11 See also
    • 12 References
    • 13 Further reading
    • 14 External links

    Early life and family[edit]

    Hoffa was born in Brazil, Indiana, on February 14, 1913, to John and Viola (née Riddle) Hoffa.[1] His father, who was of German descent (now referred to as Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry),[2] died in 1920 from lung disease when Hoffa was seven years old.[3] His mother was of Irish ancestry.[1] The family moved to Detroit in 1924, where Hoffa was raised and lived the rest of his life. Hoffa left school at age 14 and began working full-time manual labor jobs such as house painting to help support his family.

    Hoffa married Josephine Poszywak, an 18-year-old Detroit laundry worker of Polish heritage, in Bowling Green, Ohio, on September 24, 1936; the couple had met during a non-unionized laundry workers’ strike action six months earlier.[4][5] The couple had two children: a daughter, Barbara Ann Crancer, and a son, James P. Hoffa. The Hoffas paid $6,800 in 1939 for a modest home in northwest Detroit.[6] The family later owned a simple summer lakefront cottage in Orion Township, Michigan, north of Detroit.[7]

    Early union activity[edit]

    Hoffa began union organizational work at the grassroots level through his employment as a teenager with a grocery chain, a job which paid substandard wages and offered poor working conditions with minimal job security. The workers were displeased with this situation and tried to organize a union to better their lot. Although Hoffa was young, his courage and approachability in this role impressed fellow workers, and he rose to a leadership position. By 1932, after defiantly refusing to work for an abusive shift foreman, who inspired Hoffa’s long career of organizing workers, he left the grocery chain, in part because of his union activities. Hoffa was then invited to become an organizer with the Local 299 of the Teamsters in Detroit.[8]

    Growth of the Teamsters[edit]

    The Teamsters union, founded in 1903, had 75,000 members in 1933. As a result of Hoffa’s work with other union leaders to consolidate local union trucker groups into regional sections, and then into a national body—work that Hoffa ultimately completed over a period of two decades—membership grew to 170,000 members by 1936. Three years later, there were 420,000. The number grew steadily during World War II and through the post-war boom to top a million members by 1951.[9]

    The Teamsters organized truck drivers and warehousemen, first throughout the Midwest, then nationwide. Hoffa played a major role in the union’s skillful use of “quickie strikes”, secondary boycotts, and other means of leveraging union strength at one company, to then move to organize workers, and finally to win contract demands at other companies. This process, which took several years starting in the early 1930s, eventually brought the Teamsters to a position of being one of the most powerful unions in the United States.[10]

    Trucking unions in that era were heavily influenced by, and in many cases controlled by elements of, organized crime. For Hoffa to unify and expand trucking unions, he had to make accommodations and arrangements with many gangsters, beginning in the Detroit area. Organized crime influence on the IBT would expand as the union itself grew.[11]

    Hoffa’s rise to power[edit]

    Hoffa worked to defend the Teamsters unions from raids by other unions, including the CIO, and extended the Teamsters’ influence in the Midwestern states from the late 1930s to the late 1940s. Although he never actually worked as a truck driver, he became president of Local 299 in December 1946.[12] He then rose to lead the combined group of Detroit-area locals shortly afterwards, and advanced to become head of the Michigan Teamsters groups sometime later. During this time, Hoffa obtained a deferment from military service in World War II by successfully making a case for his union leadership skills being of more value to the nation, by keeping freight running smoothly to assist the war effort.

    At the 1952 IBT convention in Los Angeles, Hoffa was selected as national vice-president by incoming president Dave Beck, successor to Daniel J. Tobin, who had been president since 1907. Hoffa had quelled an internal revolt against Tobin by securing Central States regional support for Beck at the convention. In exchange, Beck made Hoffa a vice-president.[13]

    The IBT moved its headquarters from Indianapolis to Washington, D.C., taking over a large office building in the capital in 1955. IBT staff was also enlarged during this period, with many lawyers hired to assist with contract negotiations. Following his 1952 election as vice-president, Hoffa began spending more of his time away from Detroit, either in Washington or traveling around the country for his expanded responsibilities.[14] Hoffa’s personal lawyer was Bill Bufalino.[15]

    Teamsters Union presidency[edit]

    Hoffa took over the presidency of the Teamsters in 1957, at the convention in Miami Beach, Florida.[16] His predecessor, Beck, had appeared before the John L. McClellan-led U.S. Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor or Management Field in March 1957, and took the Fifth Amendment 140[17] times in response to questions. Beck was under indictment when the IBT convention took place, and was convicted and imprisoned in a trial for fraud held in Seattle.[18]

    Teamsters union expelled[edit]

    The 1957 AFL–CIO convention, held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, voted by a ratio of nearly five to one to expel the IBT from the larger union group. Vice-President Walter Reuther led the fight to oust the IBT on charges of Hoffa’s corrupt leadership.[19] President George Meany gave an emotional speech, advocating the removal of the IBT and stating that he could agree to further affiliation of the Teamsters only if they would dismiss Hoffa as their president. Meany demanded a response from Hoffa, who replied through the press, “We’ll see.” At the time, IBT was bringing in over $750,000 annually to the AFL-CIO.[20][21]

    National Master Freight Agreement[edit]

    Following his re-election as president in 1961, Hoffa worked to expand the union.[22] In 1964, he succeeded in bringing virtually all over-the-road truck drivers in North America under a single National Master Freight Agreement, in what may have been his biggest achievement in a lifetime of union activity.[23] Hoffa then tried to bring the airline workers and other transport employees into the union, with limited success. During this period, he was facing immense personal strain as he was under investigation, on trial, launching appeals of convictions, or imprisoned for virtually all of the 1960s.[10]

    Hoffa was re-elected, without opposition, to a third five-year term as president of the IBT, despite having been convicted of jury tampering and mail fraud in court verdicts that were stayed pending review on appeal. Delegates in Miami Beach also elected Frank Fitzsimmons as first vice-president, to become president “if Hoffa has to serve a jail term”.[24]

    Criminal charges[edit]

    Hoffa (right) and Bernard Spindel after a 1957 court session in which they pleaded not guilty to illegal wiretap charges

    Hoffa had first faced major criminal investigations in 1957, as a result of the McClellan Committee. On March 14, 1957, Jimmy Hoffa was arrested for allegedly trying to bribe an aide to the Select Committee.[25] Hoffa denied the charges (and was later acquitted), but the arrest triggered additional investigations and more arrests and indictments over the following weeks.[26] However, when John F. Kennedy was elected president in 1960, he appointed his younger brother Robert F. Kennedy as Attorney General. Robert Kennedy had been frustrated in earlier attempts to convict Hoffa, while working as counsel to the McClellan subcommittee. As Attorney General from 1961, Kennedy pursued a strong attack on organized crime and he carried on with a so-called “Get Hoffa” squad of prosecutors and investigators.[27][28]

    Prison sentences[edit]

    In May 1963, Hoffa was indicted for jury tampering in Tennessee. On March 4, 1964, he was convicted in Chattanooga, Tennessee, of attempted bribery of a grand juror during his 1962 conspiracy trial in Nashville, Tennessee, and sentenced to eight years in prison and a $10,000 fine.[29][30] While on bail during his appeal, Hoffa was convicted in a second trial held in Chicago, on July 26, 1964, on one count of conspiracy and three counts of mail and wire fraud for improper use of the Teamsters’ pension fund, and sentenced to five years in prison.[29][31]

    Hoffa spent the next three years unsuccessfully appealing his 1964 convictions. Appeals filed by his chief counsel, St. Louis defense attorney Morris Shenker, reached the U.S. Supreme Court. He began serving his aggregate prison sentence of 13 years (eight years for bribery, five years for fraud)[32] on March 7, 1967 at the Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania.[33]

    Appoints Fitzsimmons as caretaker president[edit]

    When Hoffa entered prison, Frank Fitzsimmons was named acting president of the union,[34]
    and attempted to run the union from prison through Fitzsimmons.[35] Fitzsimmons was a Hoffa loyalist, fellow Detroit resident, and a longtime member of Teamsters Local 299, who owed his own high position in large part to Hoffa’s influence. Despite this, Fitzsimmons soon distanced himself from Hoffa’s influence and control after 1967, to Hoffa’s displeasure. Fitzsimmons also decentralized power somewhat within the IBT’s administration structure, foregoing much of the control Hoffa took advantage of as union president.[36] While still in prison, Hoffa resigned as Teamsters president on June 19, 1971,[33] and Fitzsimmons was elected Teamsters president on July 9, 1971.[37]


    On December 23, 1971, less than five years into his 13-year sentence, Hoffa was released from prison when President Richard Nixon commuted his sentence to time served.[32] As a result of Hoffa’s previous resignation, he was awarded a $1.75 million lump sum termination benefit by the Retirement and Family Protection Plan for Officers and Employees of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America.[33] This type of pension settlement had not occurred before with the Teamsters.[38]

    The IBT then endorsed President Nixon, a Republican, in his presidential re-election bid in 1972; in prior elections, the union had supported Democratic nominees but had also endorsed Nixon in 1960.[39]

    While Hoffa regained his freedom, the commutation from President Nixon was conditional upon that he cannot “engage in the direct or indirect management of any labor organization” until March 6, 1980.[10][32] Hoffa contended that he had never agreed to any such condition.[40][41] He accused senior Nixon Administration figures, including Attorney General John N. Mitchell and White House Special Counsel Charles Colson, of depriving him of his rights by imposing this condition; Mitchell and Colson both denied this. It was suspected this condition had been imposed upon Hoffa due to requests from the Teamsters’ leadership, although Fitzsimmons also denied this.[42][43] By 1973, Jimmy Hoffa was planning to seize the presidency of the Teamsters again.[44]

    Hoffa sued to invalidate the non-participation restriction in order to reassert his power over the Teamsters. John Dean, former White House counsel to President Nixon, was among those called upon for depositions in 1974 court proceedings.[45] Dean, who had become famous as a government witness in prosecutions arising from the Watergate scandal by mid-1973, had drafted the non-participation clause in 1971 at Nixon’s request. Hoffa ultimately lost his court battle, since the court ruled that Nixon had acted within his powers by imposing the restriction, as it was based on Hoffa’s misconduct while serving as a Teamsters’ official.[46][47]

    Hoffa faced immense resistance to his re-establishment of power from many corners and had lost much of his earlier support, even in the Detroit area. As a result, he intended to begin his comeback at the local level with Local 299 in Detroit, where he retained some influence.[38] In 1975, Hoffa was working on an autobiography titled Hoffa: The Real Story, which was published a few months after his disappearance.[48] He had earlier published a book titled The Trials of Jimmy Hoffa (1970).[49]



    Hoffa’s plans to regain the leadership of the union were met with opposition from some members of the Mafia, including some who were connected to his disappearance in 1975. One was Anthony Provenzano, who had been a Teamster local leader in New Jersey and a national vice-president of the union during Hoffa’s second term as its president. Provenzano had once been a friend of Hoffa but had since become an enemy after a reported feud when both were in federal prison at Lewisburg, Pennsylvania in the 1960s.[50] In 1973 and 1974, Hoffa talked to him to ask for help in supporting him for his return to power, but Provenzano refused. Provenzano was a caporegime in the New York City Genovese crime family. At least two of his opponents had been murdered, and others who had spoken out against him had been assaulted.[36] According to Dan Moldea, Hoffa had retaliated against his Mafia opponents by cooperating with investigations against them.[51][52]

    Other Mafia figures who became involved were Anthony Giacalone, an alleged kingpin in the Detroit Mafia, and his younger brother, Vito. The FBI believes that they were positioning themselves as “mediators” between Hoffa and Provenzano.[53] The brothers had made three visits to Hoffa’s home at Lake Orion and one to the Guardian Building law offices. Their avowed purpose in meeting Hoffa was to set up a “peace meeting” between Provenzano and Hoffa. Hoffa’s son, James said “Dad was pushing so hard to get back in office, I was increasingly afraid that the mob would do something about it.” James viewed the “peace meeting” overture as a pretext and was convinced that Giacalone was “setting Dad up” for a hit. Hoffa himself was becoming increasingly uneasy each time the Giacalone brothers arrived.[36]

    Events of July 30[edit]

    Hoffa disappeared on July 30, 1975, after going out to a meeting with Anthony Provenzano and Anthony Giacalone.[54] The meeting was arranged to take place at 2 p.m. at the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Township, a suburb of Detroit. The Machus Red Fox was known to Hoffa; it had been the site for the wedding reception of his son, James.[55] Hoffa wrote the date in his office calendar: “TG—2 p.m.—Red Fox”.[36]

    On July 30, Hoffa left home in his green Pontiac Grand Ville at 1:15 p.m. Before heading to the restaurant, he stopped in Pontiac at the office of his close friend Louis Linteau, a former president of Teamsters Local 614 who now ran a limousine service. Linteau and Hoffa had been enemies early in their careers but had since settled their differences. By the time Hoffa left prison, Linteau had also become Hoffa’s unofficial appointment secretary (he had arranged a dinner meeting between Hoffa and the Giacalone brothers on July 26, where they had informed him of the July 30 sit-down). Linteau was out to lunch when Hoffa stopped by, so he talked to some of the staff present and left a message for Linteau before departing for the Machus Red Fox.[56][57]

    At 2:15 p.m., an annoyed Hoffa called his wife from a payphone on a post in front of Damman Hardware, directly behind the Machus Red Fox, and complained, “Where the hell is Tony Giacalone? I’m being stood up.”[36][58] His wife told him she had not heard from anyone. He told her he would be home at 4:00 p.m. to grill steaks for dinner. Several witnesses saw Hoffa standing by his car and pacing the restaurant’s parking lot. Two men saw Hoffa and recognized him; they stopped to chat with him briefly and to shake his hand.[36] Hoffa also made a call to Louis Linteau in which he again complained that the men were late. Linteau gave the time as 3:30 p.m., but the FBI suspected it was earlier, based on the timing of other calls from Linteau’s office from around that time.[59] The FBI estimated that Hoffa left the location without a struggle at around 2:45-2:50 p.m..[60]


    At 7:00 a.m. the next day, Hoffa’s wife called her son and daughter by telephone, saying their father had not come home. Twenty minutes later, Linteau went to the Machus Red Fox and found Hoffa’s unlocked car in the parking lot, but there was no sign of Hoffa or any indication of what had happened to him. She called the police, who later arrived at the scene. State police were brought in and the FBI was alerted. At 6:00 p.m., Hoffa’s son, James, filed a missing persons report.[43]

    The sole piece of physical evidence obtained in the investigation was a maroon 1975 Mercury Marquis Brougham, which belonged to Anthony Giacalone’s son Joseph. The car had been borrowed by Charles “Chuckie” O’Brien and he had been driving it earlier that day to deliver fish.[61] O’Brien was Hoffa’s foster son, although relations between the two had soured in the last years before Hoffa’s disappearance.[61][57] Both investigators and Hoffa’s family had suspected that O’Brien had a role in Hoffa’s disappearance.[62] Keith Corbett, a former US Prosecuting Attorney, has since suggested that O’Brien would have been considered too unreliable and too close to Hoffa to be trusted with helping a high profile murder.[61] On August 21, police dogs identified Hoffa’s scent in the car.[63]

    Giacalone and Provenzano, who denied having scheduled a meeting with Hoffa, were found not to have been near the restaurant that afternoon.[64][52] Despite extensive surveillance and bugging, investigators found that the Mafia members they thought were involved were unwilling to talk about Hoffa’s disappearance even in private.[61]

    After years of investigation, involving numerous law enforcement agencies including the FBI, officials have not reached a definitive conclusion as to Hoffa’s fate and who was involved. Hoffa’s wife, Josephine, died on September 12, 1980, and is interred at White Chapel Memorial Cemetery in Troy, Michigan.[5] On December 9, 1982, Hoffa was declared legally dead as of July 30, 1982, by Oakland County, Michigan Probate Judge Norman R. Barnard.[36][65][66]

    In 1989, Kenneth Walton, the Agent-in-Charge of the FBI’s Detroit office, told The Detroit News that he knew what had happened to Hoffa. “I’m comfortable I know who did it, but it’s never going to be prosecuted because … we would have to divulge informants, confidential sources.”[67] In 2001, the FBI matched DNA from Hoffa’s hair—taken from a brush—with a strand of hair found in Joseph Giacalone’s car.[62] It was not clear what date Hoffa had been in the car.[52] As of 2019, digs are still periodically conducted in the Detroit area in search of Hoffa’s body, though a common theory among experts is that the body may have instead been cremated.[61]

    Other accounts and speculation[edit]

    In his book, I Heard You Paint Houses: Frank “The Irishman” Sheeran and the Closing of the Case on Jimmy Hoffa (2004), author Charles Brandt claims that Frank Sheeran, an alleged professional killer for the mob and longtime friend of Hoffa’s, confessed to assassinating him. According to Brandt, O’Brien drove Sheeran, Hoffa, and fellow mobster Sal Briguglio to a house in Detroit. He claimed that while O’Brien and Briguglio drove off, Sheeran and Hoffa went into the house, where Sheeran claims that he shot Hoffa twice behind the right ear, and that he was told Hoffa was cremated after the murder. Further, Sheeran also admitted later to reporters that he murdered Hoffa,[68] yet, blood stains found in the Detroit house where Sheeran claimed the murder happened[68] were determined not to match Hoffa’s DNA.[69][70] According to Sheeran, the first conversation he had with Hoffa was over the phone, where Hoffa started by saying, “I heard you paint houses”—a mob code meaning: I heard you kill people, the “paint” being the blood that splatters when you fire bullets into a body, also according to Sheeran.[71]

    On June 16, 2006, the Detroit Free Press published in its entirety the so-called “Hoffex Memo”, a 56-page report prepared by the FBI for a January 1976 briefing on the case at FBI Headquarters in Washington. Although not claiming conclusively to establish the specifics of his disappearance, the memo records a belief that Hoffa was murdered at the behest of organized crime figures, who regarded his efforts to regain power within the Teamsters as a threat to their control of the union’s pension fund.[72]

    In Philip Carlo’s book The Iceman: Confessions of a Mafia Contract Killer (2006), Richard Kuklinski claimed to know the fate of Hoffa: his body was placed in a 50-gallon drum and set on fire for “a half hour or so”, then the drum was welded shut and buried in a junkyard. Later, according to Kuklinski, an accomplice started to talk to federal authorities. Because of fear that he would use the information to try to get out of trouble, the perpetrators had the drum dug up and placed in the trunk of a car, which was then compacted and shipped, along with hundreds of others, to Japan as scrap metal.[73]

    Hoffa’s body was rumored to be buried in Giants Stadium. In an episode of the Discovery Channel show MythBusters, titled “The Hunt for Hoffa”, the locations in the stadium where Hoffa was rumored to be buried were scanned with a ground penetrating radar. This was intended to reveal if any disturbances indicated a human body had been buried there. They found no trace of any human remains. In addition, no human remains were found when Giants Stadium was demolished in 2010.[74]

    In 2012, Roseville, Michigan, police took samples from the ground under a suburban Detroit driveway after a person reported having witnessed the burial of a body there around the time of Hoffa’s 1975 disappearance.[75] Tests by Michigan State University anthropologists found no evidence of human remains.[76]

    In January 2013, reputed gangster Tony Zerilli implied that Hoffa was originally buried in a shallow grave, with the plan to move his remains later to a second location. Zerilli contends that these plans were abandoned. He said Hoffa’s remains lay in a field in northern Oakland County, Michigan, not far from the restaurant where he was last seen. Zerilli denied any responsibility for or association with Hoffa’s disappearance.[77] On June 17, 2013, investigation of the Zerilli information led the FBI to a property in Oakland Township in northern Oakland County owned by Detroit mob boss Jack Tocco.[78] After three days, the FBI called off the dig. No human remains were found, and the case remains open.[79]

    James Buccellato, a professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northern Arizona University, suggested in 2017 that Hoffa was likely murdered one mile away from the restaurant at the house of Carlo Licata, the son of mobster Nick Licata. At the time the Mafia owned several waste incinerators and a crematorium in the Detroit area, and he further suggested that Hoffa’s body was taken to one of these places. He was doubtful it had been transported a long distance, saying “It’s just not practical.”[80]

    Thomas Andretta, who died in 2019, and his brother Stephen, who reportedly died of cancer in 2000, were named by the FBI as suspects. Both were New Jersey Teamsters and reputed Genovese crime family mob associates. The FBI called Thomas Andretta a “trusted associate of Anthony Provenzano; reported to be involved in the disappearance of Hoffa”.[81]

    In an April 2019 interview with DJ Vlad, former Colombo crime family capo Michael Franzese stated he was aware of the location of Hoffa’s body, as well as the shooter. Franzese said Hoffa was definitely killed in a mafia-related hit, and that the order came down from New York. When questioned about the location of Hoffa’s body and the shooter, Franzese said, “I can tell you that it’s wet, that’s for sure,” and “Upon good information, again, I think I know who the real shooter was; still alive today, in prison.”[82]

    Portrayal in the media[edit]

    In 1978 film F.I.S.T., Sylvester Stallone plays a character based on Hoffa.[83]

    In the 1983 TV miniseries Blood Feud, Hoffa is portrayed by Robert Blake.

    In the 1992 film Hoffa, Hoffa is portrayed by Jack Nicholson.

    Author James Ellroy features a fictional historical version of Hoffa in the Underworld USA Trilogy novels as an important secondary character, most prominently in the novels American Tabloid (1995) and The Cold Six Thousand (2001).

    In the 2003 comedy/drama film Bruce Almighty, the titular character uses powers endowed by God to manifest Hoffa’s body in order to procure a story interesting enough to reclaim his career in the news industry.

    In the 2019 Martin Scorsese film The Irishman, which adapts I Heard You Paint Houses, Hoffa is portrayed by Al Pacino.

    See also[edit]

    • Organized labour portal
    • List of people who disappeared


  • ^ a b “‘Out of the Jungle'”. September 9, cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ Sloane, Arthur A. (1991). Hoffa. MIT Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-262-19309-2. Retrieved October 27, 2014. Hoffa’s father was a coal miner and of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) lineage.
  • ^ Martin, John Bartlow (1959). Jimmy Hoffa’s Hot: A Crest special. Fawcett Publications. p. 28. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  • ^ Sloane, pp. 25–26
  • ^ a b “Obituaries”. Santa Cruz Sentinel. September 14, 1980.
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, p. 25; Sloane, p. 54
  • ^ Sloane, p. 54
  • ^ Hoffa, James R (1975). Hoffa. The Real Story as told to Oscar Fraley. Briarcliff Manor, New York: Stein and Day. p. 35.
  • ^ Ralph James and Estelle James (1965). Hoffa and the Teamsters: A Study of Union Power. Van Nostrand. pp. 13–15.
  • ^ a b c Arthur A. Sloane (1991). Hoffa. MIT Press.
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, 1978
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, p. 44.
  • ^ Sloane,[page needed]; Moldea, first edition, 1978, pp. 48–49.
  • ^ Guide to James R. Hoffa Documentation Collection, 1954-1976, Special Collections Research Center, Estelle and Melvin Gelman Library, The George Washington University
  • ^ Fowler, Glenn (May 15, 1990). “William Bufalino Sr., 72, Lawyer For Hoffa and Teamsters’ Union”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  • ^ “Hoffa is Elected Teamsters Head; Warns of Battle,” New York Times, p. 1 (October 5, 1957)
  • ^ Beck entry says 117 times
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, pp. 70–71.
  • ^ “Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 91st Congress, Volume 115, Part 13”. July 1, 1969. p. 18099. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, 1978, pp. 83–84.
  • ^ The IBT was readmitted to the AFL-CIO in 1985 but was disaffiliated from the AFL-CIO in 2005.
  • ^ “Robt. Kennedy Stands Firm Against Hoffa”. Chicago Tribune. July 8, 1961.
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, pp. 171–72.
  • ^ “Teamsters Reelect Hoffa President”, Chicago Tribune, July 8, 1966, p. 1
  • ^ Loftus, Joseph A. “F.B.I. Seizes Hoffa In A Plot To Bribe Senate Staff Aide.” New York Times. March 14, 1957.
  • ^ Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19309-4; Loftus, Joseph A. “Unionist Denies Bribery.” New York Times. March 15, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. “U.S. Jury Indicts 4 Teamster Aides Silent In Inquiry.” New York Times. March 19, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. “U.S. Jury Indicts Hoffa, Attorney.” New York Times. March 20, 1957; “8 Hoffa Aides in Detroit Get Subpoenas to Appear Before U.S. Rackets Jury Here.” New York Times. March 20, 1957; “Hoffa, Attorney Plead Not Guilty.” New York Times. March 30, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. “Hoffa Urges Court to Quash Charges.” New York Times. April 23, 1957; Ranzal, Edward. “Jury Here Indicts Hoffa On Wiretap.” New York Times. May 15, 1957.
  • ^ The Enemy Within, by Robert F. Kennedy, 1960
  • ^ “Inside the long-running conflcit between Bobby Kennedy and Jimmy Hoffa”. July 17, 2015.
  • ^ a b “United States v. Hoffa, 367 F.2d 698; Casetext”.
  • ^ Brill, Steven. The Teamsters. Paperback ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979. ISBN 0-671-82905-X; Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19309-4
  • ^ Hoffa was convicted of embezzling money from a Teamster-run pension fund and using it to invest in a Florida retirement community. In return, Hoffa had a 45 percent interest in the project, and he and several others received kickbacks in the form of “finder’s fees” from developers for securing the money. See: Brill, Steven. The Teamsters. Paperback ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979. ISBN 0-671-82905-X; Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19309-4
  • ^ a b c “Hoffa v. Fitzsimmons, 673 F.2d 1345; Casetext”.
  • ^ “Board Acts on Succession.” New York Times. March 1, 1967; Jones, David R. “Successor Choice Named By Hoffa.” New York Times. May 4, 1966; Jones, David R. “Hoffa’s Candidate Gets Clear Field as Potential President of Teamsters.” New York Times. June 29, 1966; Jones, David R. “Hoffa Re-Elected Teamsters’ Chief.” New York Times. July 8, 1966.
  • ^ Jones, David R. “Hoffa Plans Way to Retain Power.” New York Times. June 15, 1966.
  • ^ a b c d e f g Hoffa, by Arthur A. Sloane, MIT Press, 1991.
  • ^ Shabecoff, Philip. “Hoffa Is Stepping Aside As Teamsters’ President.” New York Times. June 4, 1971; Salpuka, Agis. “Teamsters Elect Fitzsimmons To Succeed Hoffa as President.” New York Times. July 9, 1971.
  • ^ a b Moldea, first edition,[page needed].
  • ^ Dray, Philip (2010). There Is Power in a Union: The Epic Story of Labor in America. Anchor. ISBN 978-0385526296.
  • ^ Brill, Steven (1979), The Teamsters, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-82905-X
  • ^ Sloane, Arthur A. (1991), Hoffa, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-19309-4
  • ^ Moldea, first edition, pp. 293–94, 321–22, 342–44.
  • ^ a b “Hoffa Is Reported Missing”. New York Times. New York City: The New York Times Company. August 1, 1975. p. 13. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  • ^ Shabecoff, Philip. “Hoffa Plans Bid for the Teamster Job.” New York Times. April 29, 1973.
  • ^ Blind Ambition: The White House Years, by John Dean, New York 1976, Simon & Schuster, p. 352.
  • ^ Hoffa v. Saxbe, 378 F. Supp. 1221 (D.D.C. 1974).
  • ^ Shabecoff, Philip. “Hoffa Denies Bar on Role in Union.” New York Times. February 8, 1974; Shabecoff, Philip. “Hoffa Sues Nixon for Free Role in Union.” New York Times. March 14, 1974; “White House Denies Hoffa’s Allegations.” New York Times. March 15, 1974; Salpuka, Agis. “Judge Upholds Conditions Barring Hoffa From Regaining Union Leadership.” New York Times. July 20, 1974.
  • ^ Hoffa: The Real Story. Stein and Day. 1975.
  • ^ The Trials of Jimmy Hoffa: An Autobiography. H. Regnery Co. 1970.
  • ^ “Anthony Provenzano, Linked to Disappearance of Hoffa, Dies”. Los Angeles Times. December 13, 1988.
  • ^ Dan E. Moldea, The Hoffa Wars, Charter Books, New York: 1978 (ISBN 0-441-34010-5)
  • ^ a b c Filkins, Dexter (February 26, 2001). “Anthony J. Giacalone, 82, Man Tied to Hoffa Mystery”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
  • ^ FBI. Jimmy Hoffa FBI Files. p. 254.
  • ^ “Investigations: Hoffa Search: ‘Looks Bad Right Now'”. Time. August 18, 1975. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  • ^ Yockel, Michael (February 13, 2001). “Harris O. Machus, owner of the Red Fox restaurant, Jimmy Hoffa’s vanishing point”. Nypress. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  • ^ Salpukas, Agis (August 3, 1975). “Hypnosis Produces Clue in Hoffa Case”. New York Times. New York City: The New York Times Company. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  • ^ a b Salpukas, Agis (August 26, 1975). “Hoffa Grand Jury Ready to Start, With 70 Witnesses Scheduled; Foster Son Subpoenaed”. New York Times. New York City: The New York Times Company. p. 40. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  • ^ Wisel, John (July 29, 2015). “40 years later, Jimmy Hoffa mystery endures”. Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan: Gannett. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  • ^ FBI. Jimmy Hoffa FBI Files. pp. 257–8.
  • ^ FBI. Jimmy Hoffa FBI Files. p. 264.
  • ^ a b c d e “Jimmy Hoffa 44 Years Later: ‘The Irishman’ Has The Story All Wrong”. WWJ Radio. July 29, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  • ^ a b “Detroit home searched for Hoffa’s DNA”. CNN_. May 28, 2004. Archived from the original on October 1, 2012.
  • ^ “Time line of the Hoffa investigation”. Detroit Free Press. July 30, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  • ^ “FBI: Tip on Jimmy Hoffa prompts search”. CNN. Atlanta, Georgia: Turner Broadcasting Systems. May 18, 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
  • ^ Yockel, Michael (February 13, 2001). “Harris O. Machus, owner of the Red Fox restaurant, Jimmy Hoffa’s vanishing point”. New York Press. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  • ^ “James R. Hoffa declared legally dead”. December 9, 1982.
  • ^ “Lawman says he knows who killed Jimmy Hoffa”. United Press International. June 18, 1989. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  • ^ a b “Detroit House Searched for Clues in Hoffa Case”. Fox News. July 30, 1975. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  • ^ “History Detectives”. Retrieved May 11, 2016. (transcript)
  • ^ “Police: Blood found in Detroit home did not come from Hoffa”. USA Today. Associated Press.
  • ^ Tonelli, Bill. “The Lies of “The Irishman””. Slate. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  • ^ “Hoffex Conference” (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. January 28, 1976. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  • ^ Carlo, Philip (2006). The Ice Man: Confessions of a Mafia Contract Killer. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 188–190. ISBN 978-0-312-34928-8.
  • ^ “Jimmy Hoffa legend put 13 feet under with demolition of Giants Stadium”.
  • ^ Williams, Corey. “Police Checking Out Hoffa Tip in Detroit Suburb”. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 2, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  • ^ “Police: No human remains found in latest Jimmy Hoffa search”. Detroit Free Press. October 2, 2012. Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
  • ^ Santia, Mark (January 13, 2013). “Reputed Mobster Says He Knows Where Hoffa Is Buried”. NBC.[dead link]
  • ^ Land claimed to be Jimmy Hoffa burial site owned by Jack Tocco in 1970s | Detroit Free Press |
  • ^ “Latest search for Jimmy Hoffa called off with no remains found”. NBC News. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  • ^ “Theory 42 Years Later: Jimmy Hoffa Murdered At Bloomfield Hills Home”. July 28, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  • ^ “The Hoffex Memo”. Scribd. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  • ^ “EXCLUSIVE: Michael Franzese: The Mafia Killed Jimmy Hoffa, I Know the Shooter”. December 2, 2019.
  • ^ Screen: ‘F.I.S.T.,’ Drama of Unionism:Stallone Returns, The New York Times, April 26, 1978
  • Further reading[edit]

    .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}

    • Jimmy Hoffa’s Hot, by John Bartlow Martin, 1959, Fawcett Publications, Greenwich, Conn.
    • Hoffa and the Underworld, by Paul Jacobs, Dissent, vol. 6, no. 4 (Autumn 1959), pp. 435–445.
    • The Enemy Within: The McClellan Committee’s Crusade Against Jimmy Hoffa and Corrupt Labor Unions, by Robert F. Kennedy, 1960, Harper and Brothers, New York.
    • The State of the Unions, by Paul Jacobs, 1963, Atheneum, New York.
    • Tentacles of Power, by Clark Mollenhoff, 1965, World Publishing Company, Cleveland and New York.
    • Hoffa! Ten Angels Swearing, by Jim Clay, 1965, Beaverdam Books, Beaverdam, Va.
    • Hoffa and the Teamsters: A Study of Union Power, by Ralph James and Estelle James, 1965, Van Nostrand, New York.
    • The Ominous Ear, by Bernard Spindel, 1968, Award House, New York.
    • The Trials of Jimmy Hoffa, by James R. Hoffa as told to Donald I. Rogers, 1970, Henry Regnery, Chicago.
    • Kennedy Justice, by Victor Navasky, 1971, Atheneum, New York.
    • The Fall and Rise of Jimmy Hoffa, by Walter Sheridan, 1972, Saturday Review Press, New York.
    • Hoffa: The Real Story, by James R. Hoffa as told to Oscar Fraley, 1975, Stein and Day, New York.
    • The Strange Disappearance of Jimmy Hoffa, by Charles Ashman and Rebecca Sobel, 1976, Manor Books, New York.
    • The Teamsters, by Steven Brill, 1978, Simon & Schuster, New York, ISBN 0-671-22771-8.
    • Mafia Kingfish: Carlos Marcello and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy, by John H. Davis (author), 1989, McGraw-Hill, New York.
    • Hoffa, by Arthur A. Sloane, 1991, MIT Press, Boston, ISBN 0-262-19309-4.
    • Hoffa, by Ken Englade, 1992, Harper Paperbacks, New York, ISBN 0-06-100613-0 (Novelization based on David Mamet’s screenplay of the 1992 film by 20th Century Fox).
    • The Hoffa Wars: Teamsters, Rebels, Politicians and the Mob, 1978, first edition, by Dan Moldea, Paddington Press, New York and London, ISBN 0-448-22684-7.
    • The Hoffa Wars: Teamsters, Rebels, Politicians and the Mob, 1993, second edition, by Dan Moldea, SPI, New York.
    • Mob Lawyer, by Frank Ragano and Selwyn Raab, 1994, Charles Scribner’s Sons, ISBN 0-684-19568-2.
    • All-American Mobster, by Charles Rappleye and Ed Becker, [about John Roselli] Barricade Books, 1995, ISBN 1-56980-027-8.
    • Out of the Jungle: Jimmy Hoffa and the Remaking of the American Working Class, by Thaddeus Russell, 2001, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, ISBN 0-375-41157-7.
    • Watergate: The Hidden History, by Lamar Waldron, 2012, Counterpoint, Berkeley, California.
    • I Heard You Paint Houses: Frank “The Irishman” Sheeran and the Inside Story of the Mafia, the Teamsters, and the Last Ride of Jimmy Hoffa [Paperback], by Charles Brandt

    External links[edit]

    • HDSI—Who Killed Jimmy Hoffa? Documentary produced by the PBS Series History Detectives
    • Guide to James R. Hoffa Documentation Collection, 1954–1976, Special Collections Research Center, Estelle and Melvin Gelman Library, The George Washington University

    Bufalino crime family members

    Italian-American Mafia crime family

    The Bufalino crime family,[1] also known as the Pittston crime family,[2] Scranton Wilkes-Barre family,[2] Northeastern Pennsylvania crime family,[3] Northeastern Pennsylvania Mafia,[4][5] or Scranton Mafia,[6] is an Italian-American Mafia crime family active in the Northeastern Pennsylvania cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Pittston.[7][8]


    • 1 History
      • 1.1 Barbara and the Apalachin meeting
      • 1.2 Bufalino era
      • 1.3 D’Elia’s leadership
      • 1.4 Current status
    • 2 Historical leadership
    • 3 Former members
    • 4 References
    • 5 Further reading


    Barbara and the Apalachin meeting[edit]

    Further information: Apalachin Meeting

    In 1957, Joseph Barbara, an alleged member of the Buffalo crime family,[9] held a Mafia Commission meeting at his Apalachin, New York home. The meeting was preceded a few weeks before by the assassination of Albert Anastasia and a smaller meeting at the New Jersey estate of Ruggiero Boiardo. The Apalachin meeting was attended by about 100 Mafia heads from the U.S., Canada, and Italy. A raid by New York State Police caught many heads of families or their deputies. Many other family heads and their deputies were suspected of being present by law enforcement but evaded detection and capture. However, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit dismissed many of the cases on legal technicalities. The initial appeal before the second circuit was brought by Russell Bufalino and was successful, therefore, vindicating him of the ensuing conspiracy and obstruction of justice charges and as a result all those other mobsters apprehended at the Apalachin debacle. The granting of Bufalino’s appeal by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit greatly increased Bufalino’s stature among Mafiosi on the national stage.[10]

    Bufalino era[edit]

    With Barbara’s death in June 1959, the Mafia Commission recognized Russell Bufalino as the official family boss.[11] Bufalino maintained a close alliance with the New York Genovese family. After Bufalino was imprisoned in the late 1970s on extortion charges related to the collection of a debt, his underboss, Edward Sciandra, became the acting boss of the family. Sciandra was aided in running the family by captains Anthony Guarnieri, James David Osticco, and Phillip Medico, Consiglieri Remo Allio, as well as soldiers William D’Elia, Angelo Bufalino, John Rizzo, Angelo Son, and Joseph Sperrazza.[12] Bufalino was released from prison in 1980 briefly after serving his sentence for extortion. Towards the end of 1981 Bufalino was again imprisoned after being found guilty of conspiring to kill Jack Napoli, a witness in his 1978 extortion trial. Bufalino learned the whereabouts of Napoli, then in the Witness Protection Program, and conspired with Los Angeles mobster Jimmy Fratianno and another man he met in prison to murder Napoli. Fratianno turned government informant and testified against Bufalino at trial.[13] He was sentenced to ten years imprisonment and released in 1989. Russell Bufalino died on February 25, 1994 of natural causes near Pittston, Pennsylvania.

    D’Elia’s leadership[edit]

    William “Big Billy” D’Elia, became the new boss of the Bufalino crime family after the death of boss Russell Bufalino in 1994 and later, the retirement of Acting Boss Edward Sciandra. D’Elia, started his criminal career in the Bufalino family in the late 1960s as Bufalino’s driver after his late sister married the only son of capo James David Osticco. According to the Pennsylvania Crime Commission D’Elia was placed in the crew of Caporegime Phillip Medico. D’Elia advanced through the ranks of the organization rather quickly due to the natural attrittion of members and indictments in the 1980s and 1990s. He took over the crime family’s solid waste rackets and oversaw the traditional Mafia rackets run by the members and associates of the family. D’Elia also attempted to replenish the aging ranks of the family with limited success. As boss D’Elia worked with other crime families in New York City, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Florida, and Los Angeles. In the 1990s, D’Elia was linked to a money laundering scheme involving numerous Northeastern Pennsylvania Bookmakers, Escort Services, corrupt politicians, and associates of Russian Organized Crime. D’Elia was closely aligned with the Philadelphia crime family.[14] When Philadelphia crime family boss John Stanfa was imprisoned D’Elia was one of Stanfa’s choices as interim caretaker of the family.[15]

    On May 31, 2001, agents from the Criminal Investigation Division of the IRS, US Postal Inspectors, and Pennsylvania State Police executed search warrants at the homes of D’Elia, his mistress Jeanie Stanton, Thomas Joseph, and former Pennsylvania Crime Commission informant Samuel “Cooch” Marranca, seizing records in an ongoing investigation. Marranca has been identified as an informant working for the FBI and the Pennsylvania State Police. Marranca also testified on behalf of authorities against Louis DeNaples in front of the Fourth Statewide Investigating Grand Jury in regards to Mr. DeNaple’s mob ties and his ownership of the Mount Airy Casino. Samuel “Cooch” Marranca also aided the Crime Commission in its investigation of Bufalino family member Joseph “Detroit” Sciandra and his involvement in the distribution of counterfeit designer clothing and sports wagering.[16] On February 26, 2003, D’Elia was banned from entering any Atlantic City, New Jersey casinos by the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement,[17] based on information shared by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Pennsylvania Crime Commission.[18]

    On May 31, 2006, D’Elia was indicted on federal charges of laundering $600,000 in illegal drug proceeds obtained from a Florida-based associate of the Bufalino crime family among others including Lucchese family associate Phillip “Fipper” Forgione. While D’Elia was free on bail, he solicited a U.S. Customs Agency informant to murder a witness in the case and was remanded to prison until his eventual guilty plea and sentencing.[19][20] In March 2008, D’Elia pleaded guilty to witness tampering and money laundering.[19] He was sentenced to nine years in prison.[19] D’Elia cooperated with the government and testified against Louis DeNaples, the owner of Mount Airy Casino Resort in the Poconos. In 2010, D’Elia got two years dropped from his sentence for his assisting the government’s investigation against DeNaples.[21]

    Current status[edit]

    In 2012, author Dave Janoski interviewed James Kanavy, a former Pennsylvania Crime Commission investigator and according to Kanavy there isn’t a standalone family in Northeastern Pennsylvania anymore.[22] Kanavy said any remnants of the Mafia family would be aligned with the New York families.[22]

    Historical leadership[edit]

    Boss (official and acting)

    • 1900-1903: Tommaso Petto—killed[7]
    • 1903–1908: Stefano LaTorre—stepped down[7]
    • 1908–1933: Santo Volpe[2]—retired in 1933[7][8]
    • 1933–1940: Giovanni “John” Sciandra[2]—Two theories: murdered (1940) or of natural causes (1949)[2][7][8]
    • 1940–1959: Giuseppe “Joe the Barber” Barbara, Sr.[2]—had a heart attack in 1956 and died in 1959.[2][7][8]
      • Acting 1956–1959: Rosario Alberto “Russell” Bufalino[7][8]—became boss
    • 1959–1994: Rosario Alberto “Russell” Bufalino[11][7][8]—imprisoned from 1978–1989; retired, he died on February 25, 1994[1]
      • Acting 1975-1989: Edward “Eddie The Conductor” Sciandra[7][8]—imprisoned 1981-1982; he received help from Anthony Guarnieri and William D’Elia[1]
      • Acting 1990–1994: William “Big Billy” D’Elia[1]—became boss
    • 1994–2008: William “Big Billy” D’Elia[7][8]—in 2006 he was indicted on money laundering, in 2008 he pleaded guilty and testified in front of a grand jury for leniency.[19][23][24]

    Former members[edit]

    • James Osticco: served as underboss to Russell Bufalino.[1] Died in 1990.
    • Edward “Eddie the Conductor” Sciandra: served as consigliere to Russell Bufalino.[1] Died in 2003.
    • Angelo Polizzi: served as consigliere to Giacomo Sciandra.[2] He moved to Detroit and started the Polizzi line of L.C.N. figures in the Detroit area.
    • Anthony F. Guarnieri: former caporegime,[1] died in 1992
    • Frank Cannone: former soldier, deceased, he ran a bookmaking operation in Binghamton, New York.[1]
    • Anthony J. Mosco: former soldier, he was active in Binghamton, New York[1] Mosco served 17 years in federal prison for racketeering along with capo Anthony “Guv” Guarnieri and other family members and associates. He currently resides in Arizona and Florida and has been seen visiting with family members and associates in the Pittston area in recent years.
    • Frank “The Irishman” Sheeran: former associate[25]


  • ^ a b c d e f g h i Organized Crime in Pennsylvania: Traditional and Non-Traditional. Pennsylvania Crime Concession. April 15, 1988. (The Nevada Observer. August 16, 2006) Archived November 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  • ^ a b c d e f g h Devico, Peter J. The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra pp. 188–189
  • ^ Abadinsky, Howard (2016). Organized Crime. Cengage Learning. ISBN cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ Birkbeck, Matt (2013). The Quiet Don: The Untold Story of Mafia Kingpin Russell Bufalino. Penguin. ISBN 9781101618264.
  • ^ Ecenbarger, William (2012). Kids for Cash: Two Judges, Thousands of Children, and a $2.6 Million Kickback Scheme. New Press. ISBN 9781595587978.
  • ^ Martinelli, Patricia A. (2008). True Crime: Pennsylvania: The State’s Most Notorious Criminal Cases. Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811741699.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j “The American “Scranton crime Bosses””. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h 26 Family Cities “Northeast PA” Archived December 14, 2004, at the Wayback Machine by Mario Machi Rick Porrello’s
  • ^ Informer April 2011
  • ^ See United States of America, Appellee v. Russell Bufalino et..
  • ^ a b Investigations, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on (November 30, 1983). “Profile of Organized Crime, Mid-Atlantic Region: Hearings Before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-eighth Congress, First Session, February 15, 23, and 24, 1983”. U.S. Government Printing Office – via Google Books.
  • ^ 1980 Report: A Decade of Organized Crime. Pennsylvania Crime Commission
  • ^ Laborers local 1058 (Pittsburgh) Order and Memorandum imposing supervision in lieu of trusteeship
  • ^ Mafia kingpin William D’Elia gets nine years by Michael Rubinkam (November 25, 2008) Pocono Record
  • ^ Taking Care Of Family Business. With Stanfa Behind Bars, Who Will Take Over The Mob?
  • ^ “1985 Report” Pennsylvania Crime Commission
  • ^ William D’Elia – N.J. Excluded Person “William D’Elia” Archived October 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine New Jersey Excluded Person
  • ^ William D’Elia pleads guilty in Scranton (March 28, 2008)
  • ^ a b c d “Reputed mobster gets 9 years in prison” Archived 2013-01-28 at (November 24, 2008)
  • ^ “Reputed mobster gets 9 years in prison” The Daily Item November 24, 2008
  • ^ Reputed Pa. mobster wins sentence reduction of nearly 2 years for cooperating with government (June 30, 2010) Fox News and Associated Press
  • ^ a b Janoski, Dave (July 17, 2011). “The rise and fall of a mob power”. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  • ^ Reputed mob boss gets prison term shortened by Matt Birkbeck. The Morning Call. June 30, 2010
  • ^ Reputed Bufalino family boss D’Elia sentence reduced Mafia News
  • ^ Lin Devecchio and Charles Brandt We’re Going to Win This Thing: The Shocking Frame-Up of a Mafia Crime Buster see
  • Further reading[edit]

    • George Anastasia. The Goodfella Tapes (Avon, 1998). ISBN 0-380-79637-6.
    • Charles Brandt .I Heard You Paint Houses: Frank “The Irishman” Sheeran and the Inside Story of the Mafia, the Teamsters, and the Final Ride of Jimmy Hoffa (Steerforth, 2004). ISBN 1-58642-077-1.

    StructureEventsClosely related
    and affiliated
    organizationsOther topics Category

    Insurance private investigator

    For the film, see Insurance Investigator (film).

    An insurance investigator examines insurance claims that are suspicious or otherwise in doubt. Investigators in this field have differing specialties and backgrounds. Some insurance companies have their own in-house investigation teams while other companies sub-contract the work to private investigators or private investigation firms. Although such investigations are usually conducted to combat fraud, very often investigators will be working simply to establish the circumstances of a particular claim (for example, in a multi-vehicular road accident involving various parties, claims and insurance companies).

    Insurance fraud[edit]

    Main article: Insurance fraud

    Methods of defrauding insurance companies are manifold, as are the means of investigating them. As a crime, however, evidence shows that insurance fraud in wealthy nations is increasing, with many governments running public awareness campaigns to deter potential fraudsters and appeal to the public to report any suspicious claims.

    One of the most common forms of insurance fraud is the exaggeration of injuries. Because many injuries can be exceptionally difficult to quantify (for example, psychological injuries or physical injuries such as whiplash), investigators will often seek to establish that what the claimant claims is true (for example, if a claimant states he or she cannot work) and that there are no obvious discrepancies in the symptoms claimed (very often examined in conjunction with medical staff). Surveillance is often employed in such circumstances to verify the claim.

    Another form of lesser known fraud is that of claiming on an insurance policy for injuries sustained before the policy came into effect. For example, in a road accident, a person may claim to have sustained a debilitating back injury. On investigation, however, it transpires that the injury had been sustained in an incident some months or even years before. Very often insurance companies and investigators will study medical reports and history to eliminate this possibility, as well as searching for evidence of previous claims or accidents.

    There are also many forms of fraud involving property, for example when a person with valuable assets (property, for example) deliberately destroys them, often through arson, with the intention of then claiming the value back through insurance. Another form would be an art collector insurance a high value piece and then having it ‘stolen’ – claiming the money for himself and keeping the art piece in the process.

    United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency

    US subcommittee to investigate juvenile delinquency

    The United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was established by the United States Senate in 1953 to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.


    • 1 Background
    • 2 1954 comic book hearings
    • 3 See also
    • 4 Notes
    • 5 References
      • 5.1 Bibliography
    • 6 External links


    The subcommittee was a unit of the United States Senate Judiciary Committee and was created by a motion of Senator Robert Hendrickson, a Republican from New Jersey. Its initial budget was $44,000. The first members of the subcommittee consisted of Senator Hendrickson, and Senators Estes Kefauver (Democrat from Tennessee), Thomas C. Hennings, Jr. (Democrat from Missouri), and William Langer (Republican from North Dakota).[1] Senator Hendrickson was initially the chair of the committee but was later replaced as chair by Senator Kefauver.

    1954 comic book hearings[edit]

    The public hearings took place on April 21, 22, and June 4, 1954, in New York. They focused on particularly graphic “crime and horror” comic books of the day, and their potential impact on juvenile delinquency. When publisher William Gaines contended that he sold only comic books of good taste, Kefauver entered into evidence one of Gaines’ comics (Crime SuspenStories #22 [April-May 1954]), which showed a dismembered woman’s head on its cover. The exchange between Gaines and Kefauver led to a front-page story in The New York Times the following day.

    .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

    Chief Counsel Herbert Beaser asked: “Then you think a child cannot in any way, shape, or manner, be hurt by anything that the child reads or sees?”

    William Gaines responded: “I do not believe so.”

    Beaser: “There would be no limit, actually, to what you’d put in the magazines?”

    Gaines: “Only within the bounds of good taste.”

    Sen. Kefauver: “Here is your May issue. This seems to be a man with a bloody ax holding a woman’s head up which has been severed from her body. Do you think that’s in good taste?”

    Gaines: “Yes sir, I do — for the cover of a horror comic. A cover in bad taste, for example, might be defined as holding her head a little higher so that blood could be seen dripping from it and moving the body a little further over so that the neck of the body could be seen to be bloody.”

    Kefauver (doubtful): “You’ve got blood coming out of her mouth.”

    Gaines: “A little.”[2][3]

    What none of the senators knew was that Gaines had already cleaned up the cover of this issue. Artist Johnny Craig’s first draft included those very elements which Gaines had said were in “bad taste” and had him clean it up before publication.

    Because of the unfavorable press coverage resulting from the hearings, the comic book industry adopted the Comics Code Authority, a self-regulatory ratings code that was initially adopted by nearly all comic publishers and continued to be used by some comics until 2011. In the immediate aftermath of the hearings, several publishers were forced to revamp their schedules and drastically censor or even cancel many popular long-standing comic series.

    See also[edit]

    • Seduction of the Innocent by Fredric Wertham


  • ^ “Senators to Hold Teen Age Hearings,” New York Times, Sep. 19, 1953, p. 16.
  • ^ Kihss, Peter. “No Harm in Horror, Comics Issuer Says”. New York Times, April 22, 1954, p. 1.
  • ^ Nyberg, Amy (February 1, 1998). Seal of Approval: The Origins and History of the Comics Code, Volume 1. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 61–63. ISBN 0-87805-974-1. Retrieved 9 November cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • References[edit]


    • Beaty, Bart (2005). Fredric Wertham and the Critique of Mass Culture. University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 1-57806-819-3.
    • Nyberg, Ami Kiste (1998). Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code, University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 0-87805-975-X.
    • Juvenile Delinquency (Comic Books) hearings before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee To Investigate Juvenile Delinquency in the U.S., Eighty-Third Congress, second session, on Apr. 21, 22, June 4, 1954. (OCLC Worldcat link to 5320509 or 27331381)

    External links[edit]

    • 1954 Senate Subcommittee Transcripts
    • Comic Books and Juvenile Delinquency Interim Report of the Committee on the judiciary pursuant to S. Res. 89 and S. Res. 190
    • 1955 hearings transcripts: U.S. Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, Juvenile Delinquency (Obscene and Pornographic Materials): hearings before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee To Investigate Juvenile Delinquency Pursuant to Senate Resolution 62, Investigation of Juvenile Delinquency in the United States, May 24, 26, 31, June 9 and 18, 1955, 84th Congress, 1st session.

    Richard Jewell

    American police officer
    For other people named Richard Jewell, see Richard Jewell (disambiguation).

    Richard Allensworth Jewell (born Richard White;[1] December 17, 1962 – August 29, 2007) was an American police officer and security guard. While working as a security guard for AT&T, he became known in connection with the Centennial Olympic Park bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia.[1] Discovering a backpack filled with three pipe bombs on the park grounds, Jewell alerted police and helped to evacuate the area before the bomb exploded, saving many people from injury or death. Initially hailed by the media as a hero, Jewell was later considered a suspect, before ultimately being cleared.

    Despite never being charged, he underwent a “trial by media” with great toll on his personal and professional life. Jewell was eventually completely exonerated, and Eric Rudolph was later found to have been the bomber.[2][3] In 2006, Governor Sonny Perdue publicly thanked Jewell on behalf of the State of Georgia for saving the lives of those at the Olympics.[4] Jewell died on August 29, 2007 of heart failure from complications of diabetes at age 44.


    • 1 Personal life
    • 2 Bombing
    • 3 Investigation and the media
    • 4 Libel cases
      • 4.1 Richard Jewell v. Piedmont College
      • 4.2 Richard Jewell v. NBC
      • 4.3 Richard Jewell v. New York Post
      • 4.4 Richard Jewell v. Cox Enterprises (d.b.a. Atlanta Journal-Constitution)
      • 4.5 CNN
    • 5 Aftermath
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links

    Personal life[edit]

    Jewell was born Richard White in Danville, Georgia, the son of Bobi, an insurance claims co-ordinator, and Robert Earl White, who worked for Chevrolet.[1] Richard’s parents divorced when he was four. His mother remarried, to John Jewell, an insurance executive, who adopted Richard.[1] Richard Jewell was married to Dana Jewell.


    Main article: Centennial Olympic Park bombing

    Centennial Olympic Park was designed as the “town square” of the Olympics, and thousands of spectators had gathered for a late concert and merrymaking. Sometime after midnight, July 27, 1996, Eric Robert Rudolph, a terrorist who would later bomb a gay nightclub and two abortion clinics, planted a green backpack containing a fragmentation-laden pipe bomb underneath a bench. Jewell was working as a security guard for the event. He discovered the bag and alerted Georgia Bureau of Investigation officers. This discovery was nine minutes before Rudolph called 9-1-1 to deliver a warning. Jewell and other security guards began clearing the immediate area so that a bomb squad could investigate the suspicious package. The bomb exploded 13 minutes later, killing Alice Hawthorne and injuring over one hundred others. A cameraman also died of a heart attack while running to cover the incident.

    Investigation and the media[edit]

    Early news reports lauded Jewell as a hero for helping to evacuate the area after he spotted the suspicious package. Three days later, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution revealed that the FBI was treating him as a possible suspect, based largely on a “lone bomber” criminal profile. For the next several weeks, the news media focused aggressively on him as the presumed culprit, labeling him with the ambiguous term “person of interest”, sifting through his life to match a leaked “lone bomber” profile that the FBI had used. The media, to varying degrees, portrayed Jewell as a failed law enforcement officer who may have planted the bomb so he could “find” it and be a hero.[5]

    A Justice Department investigation of the FBI’s conduct found the FBI had tried to manipulate Jewell into waiving his constitutional rights by telling him he was taking part in a training film about bomb detection, although the report concluded “no intentional violation of Mr. Jewell’s civil rights and no criminal misconduct” had taken place.[6][7][8]

    In a reference to the Unabomber, Jay Leno called him the “Una-doofus”.[9] Other references include “Una-Bubba”,[10] and (of his mother) “Una-Mama”. Jewell was never officially charged, but the FBI thoroughly and publicly searched his home twice, questioned his associates, investigated his background, and maintained 24-hour surveillance of him. The pressure only began to ease after Jewell’s attorneys hired an ex-FBI agent to administer a polygraph, which Jewell passed.[5]

    In October 1996, the investigating US Attorney, Kent Alexander, in an extremely unusual act, sent Jewell a letter formally clearing him, stating “based on the evidence developed to date … Richard Jewell is not considered a target of the federal criminal investigation into the bombing on July 27, 1996, at Centennial Olympic Park in Atlanta”.[11]

    Libel cases[edit]

    After his exoneration, Jewell filed lawsuits against the media outlets which he said had libeled him, primarily NBC News and The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, and insisted on a formal apology from them. L. Lin Wood was the lead attorney in all of Jewell’s libel cases.[5][12][13][14]

    In 2006, Jewell said the lawsuits were not about money, and that the vast majority of the settlements went to lawyers or taxes. He said the lawsuits were about clearing his name.[5]

    Richard Jewell v. Piedmont College[edit]

    Jewell filed suit against his former employer Piedmont College, Piedmont College President Raymond Cleere and college spokesman Scott Rawles.[13] Jewell’s attorneys contended that Cleere called the FBI and spoke to the Atlanta newspapers, providing them with false information on Jewell and his employment there as a security guard. Jewell’s lawsuit accused Cleere of describing Jewell as a “badge-wearing zealot” who “would write epic police reports for minor infractions.”[12]

    Piedmont College settled for an undisclosed amount.[15]

    Richard Jewell v. NBC[edit]

    Jewell sued NBC News for this statement, made by Tom Brokaw: “The speculation is that the FBI is close to making the case. They probably have enough to arrest him right now, probably enough to prosecute him, but you always want to have enough to convict him as well. There are still some holes in this case”.[16] Even though NBC stood by its story, the network agreed to pay Jewell $500,000.[13]

    Richard Jewell v. New York Post[edit]

    On July 23, 1997, Jewell sued the New York Post for $15 million in damages, contending that the paper portrayed him in articles, photographs and an editorial cartoon as an “aberrant” person with a “bizarre employment history” who was probably guilty of the bombing.[17] He eventually settled with the newspaper for an undisclosed amount.[18]

    Richard Jewell v. Cox Enterprises (d.b.a. Atlanta Journal-Constitution)[edit]

    Jewell also sued the Atlanta Journal-Constitution newspaper. According to Jewell, the paper’s headline, “FBI suspects ‘hero’ guard may have planted bomb”, “pretty much started the whirlwind”.[14] In one article, the Atlanta Journal compared Richard Jewell’s case to that of serial killer Wayne Williams.[16][19]

    The newspaper was the only defendant that did not settle with Jewell. The lawsuit remained pending for several years, after having been considered at one time by the Supreme Court of Georgia, and had become an important part of case law regarding whether journalists could be forced to reveal their sources. Jewell’s estate continued to press the case even after Jewell’s death but in July 2011 all of its claims were ultimately rejected by the Georgia Court of Appeals. The Court concluded that “because the articles in their entirety were substantially true at the time they were published—even though the investigators’ suspicions were ultimately deemed unfounded—they cannot form the basis of a defamation action.”[20]


    Although CNN settled with Jewell for an undisclosed monetary amount, CNN maintained its coverage was “fair and accurate”.[21]


    In July 1997, U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno, prompted by a reporter’s question at her weekly news conference, expressed regret over the FBI’s leak to the news media that led to the widespread presumption of his guilt, and apologized outright, saying, “I’m very sorry it happened. I think we owe him an apology. I regret the leak.”[22]

    The same year, Jewell made public appearances. He appeared in Michael Moore’s 1997 film, The Big One. He had a cameo in the September 27, 1997 episode of Saturday Night Live, in which he jokingly fended off suggestions that he was responsible for the deaths of Mother Teresa and Princess Diana.[23]

    In 2001, Jewell was honored as the Grand Marshal of the Carmel, Indiana’s Independence Day Parade. Jewell was chosen in keeping with the parade’s theme of “Unsung Heroes.”[24]

    On April 13, 2005, Jewell was exonerated completely when Eric Rudolph pleaded guilty to carrying out the bombing attack at the Centennial Olympic Park, as well as three other attacks across southern parts of the US. Just over a year later, Georgia governor Sonny Perdue honored Jewell for his rescue efforts during the attack.[25][26]

    Jewell had worked in various law enforcement jobs, including as a police officer in Pendergrass, Georgia. He worked as a deputy sheriff in Meriwether County, Georgia until his death. He also gave speeches at colleges.[5]

    On each anniversary of the bombing until his illness and eventual death, he would privately place a rose at the Centennial Olympic Park scene where spectator Alice Hawthorne died.[27]

    Jewell died August 29, 2007, at the age of 44. He was suffering from severe heart disease, kidney disease, and diabetes.[4]

    Richard Jewell, a biographical drama film, is set for release in the United States on December 13, 2019.[28]

    See also[edit]

    • Yoshiyuki Kōno, man subjected to comparable “trial by media” in Japan as suspect in the Matsumoto sarin attack
    • Media circus
    • Scapegoating


  • ^ a b c d e f “American Nightmare: The Ballad of Richard Jewell”. Vanity Fair. February 1, 1997. Retrieved July 22, cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ “Anthrax Investigation (online chat with Marilyn Thompson, Assistant Managing Editor, Investigative)”. Washington Post. July 3, 2003.
  • ^ National Journal Global Security Newswire (August 13, 2002). “Anthrax: FBI Denies Smearing Former US Army Biologist”. Archived from the original on April 19, 2005. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  • ^ a b Sack, Kevin (August 30, 2007). “Richard Jewell, 44, Hero of Atlanta Attack, Dies”. New York Times. Richard A. Jewell, whose transformation from heroic security guard to Olympic bombing suspect and back again came to symbolize the excesses of law enforcement and the news media, died Wednesday at his home in Woodbury, Ga. He was 44. The cause of death was not released, pending the results of an autopsy that will be performed Thursday by the Georgia Bureau of Investigation. But the coroner in Meriwether County, about 60 miles southwest of here, said that Mr. Jewell died of natural causes and that he had battled serious medical problems since learning he had diabetes in February.
  • ^ a b c d e Weber, Harry R. (August 30, 2007). “Former Olympic Park Guard Jewell Dies”. Associated Press in The Washington Post. Security guard Richard Jewell was initially hailed as a hero for spotting a suspicious backpack and moving people out of harm’s way just before a bomb exploded, killing one and injuring 111 others. But within days, he was named as a suspect in the blast.
  • ^ Sack, Kevin (April 9, 1997). “U.S. Says F.B.I. Erred in Using Deception in Olympic Bomb Inquiry”. The New York Times.
  • ^ “Jewell wants probe of FBI investigation”. CNN. July 30, 1997.
  • ^ “The Activities of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (Part III)”. House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Crime, Committee on the Judiciary,. July 30, 1997.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  • ^ “60 Minutes II: Falsely Accused”. 60 Minutes II. CBS Worldwide. June 26, 2002. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
  • ^ Corliss, Richard (June 24, 2001). “Time Magazine: From Fame To Infamy”. TIME Magazine. TIME. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
  • ^ “Jewell cleared of Olympic park bombing”. CNN. October 26, 1996.
  • ^ a b “Ex-Suspect in Bombing Sues Newspapers, College; Jewell’s Libel Claim Seeks Unspecified Damages”. Washington Post. January 29, 1997. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  • ^ a b c “Jewell sues newspapers, former employer for libel”. CNN. January 28, 1997.
  • ^ a b CBS, “60 Minutes II: Falsely Accused,” “CBS,” June 26, 2002
  • ^ “Jewell settles with college”. Lakeland Ledger. August 27, 1997. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
  • ^ a b Ostrow, Ronald J. (June 13, 2000). “Richard Jewell Case Study”. Columbia University.
  • ^ Jones, Dow (July 24, 1997). “Richard Jewell Files Suit Against The Post”. The New York Times.
  • ^ Weber, Harry (August 30, 2007). “Former Olympic Park guard Jewell dies”. USA Today. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
  • ^ Fennessy, Steve (August 1, 2001). “The wheels of justice – After five years, Richard Jewell v. AJC a long way from over”. Creative Loafing.
  • ^ Bryant v. Cox Enterprises, Inc., 311 Ga. App. 230 (Ga. Ct. App. 2011).
  • ^ Fox, James Alan (September 17, 2009). “Commentary: Don’t name ‘person of interest’ – CNN”. CNN.
  • ^ “Reno to Jewell: ‘I regret the leak'”. CNN. July 31, 1997.
  • ^ “Saturday Night Live: Weekend Update Segment – Richard Jewell”. NBC.
  • ^ “Carmelfest filled with fun for everyone” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 17, 2005. (423 KB)
  • ^ “Jewell Finally Honored As A Hero |”. Gannett via WGRZ. August 2, 2006. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  • ^ Perdue, Sonny (August 1, 2006). “Governor Perdue Commends Richard Jewell”. Office of the Governor of the State of Georgia. The bottom line is this – Richard Jewell’s actions saved lives that day. He deserves to be remembered as a hero,” said Governor Sonny Perdue. “As we look back on the success of the Olympics games and all they did to transform Atlanta, I encourage Georgians to remember the lives that were spared as a result of Richard Jewell’s actions.”
  • ^ Weber, Harry R. (September 4, 2007). “Former security guard Richard Jewell memorialized a hero”. The Associated Press.
  • ^ Ramos, Dino-Ray (October 8, 2019). “Clint Eastwood’s ‘Richard Jewell’ To Make World Premiere At AFI Fest”. Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  • External links[edit]

    • “Richard Jewell v. NBC, and other Richard Jewell cases”. Libel and Slander. May 18, 2011
    • Farnsworth, Elizabeth (October 28, 1996). “OLYMPIC PARK: ANOTHER VICTIM”. PBS NewsHour.
    • “‘All I did was my job’: Decade later, pain of being called bombing suspect fresh to Richard Jewell”. NBC News/Associated Press. July 27, 2006.
    • Richard Jewell at Find a Grave
    • ESPN 30 for 30 clip

    William B. Taylor Jr .

    American diplomat

    For other people named William Taylor, see William Taylor (disambiguation).

    William Brockenbrough Taylor Jr. (born 1947)[1] is an American diplomat and a former United States ambassador to Ukraine.[2] In June 2019 Taylor returned to Ukraine to serve as the chargé d’affaires for Ukraine.

    On October 3, 2019, it was revealed that Taylor had expressed, in text messages, concern that President Trump may have withheld aid to Ukraine in exchange for President Zelensky publicly stating that Ukraine would investigate Hunter Biden and Burisma.


    • 1 Early life
    • 2 Career
    • 3 Trump–Ukraine scandal
      • 3.1 Taylor–Sondland texts
      • 3.2 Testimony in House impeachment inquiry
    • 4 Personal Life
    • 5 See also
    • 6 Sources
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links

    Early life[edit]

    Taylor is the son of Nancy Dare (Aitcheson) and William Brockenbrough Newton Taylor,[3][4] who had been a director of research and development for the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).[5]

    Taylor graduated from Mount Vernon High School (Virginia) in 1965 after serving as president of his junior and senior class.[6] Like his father, he attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, attaining the rank of cadet battalion commander and graduating in the top 1% of his class in 1969. The 1969 Howitzer yearbook notes his modesty about his many academic and athletic accomplishments, describing him as “a man who is held in the highest esteem and admiration by all of us.”[7] In 1977 he completed graduate studies at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, receiving a Master of Public Policy degree.


    After Taylor graduated from West Point, he served in the infantry for six years, including tours of duty in the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, and 18 months with the 101st Airborne Division during the Vietnam War. Taylor was a rifle company commander in the 506th Infantry Regiment (United States) of the 101st Airborne, widely heralded from the World War II book and TV miniseries Band of Brothers with their motto “Currahee,” meaning “We stand alone.”[8] He earned a Bronze Star Medal and Air Medal with ‘V’ for VALOR for heroism.

    Later, he was an aero-rifle commander in the 2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States) in Germany.[9]

    In 1980 Taylor was serving in the relatively new Department of Energy as Director of Emergency Preparedness Policy. While the DOE had received creditable marks for its response to the coal strike during 1977-1978, the crisis in Iran pointed to the need for better federal level contingency planning and preparedness going forward. In taking on this new assignment, Taylor had a long term, rather than short term, focus on potential crises (e.g. price controls and gasoline rationing), efforts that often required coordination with other federal agencies, including the United States Department of the Treasury, the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers and the United States Department of Health and Human Services.[10]

    Thereafter Taylor served for five years as Legislative Assistant on the staff of U.S. Senator Bill Bradley (D-N.J.). He then directed a Defense Department think tank at Fort Lesley J. McNair.

    Following that assignment, he transferred to Brussels for a five year assignment as the Special Deputy Defense Advisor to the U.S. Ambassador to NATO, William Howard Taft IV. From 1992 until 2002 Taylor served with the rank of ambassador coordinating assistance to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He then accepted an assignment as Special Representative for Donor Assistance in Kabul coordinating U.S. and international assistance to Afghanistan. Engaging with the Afghan government and international donors, Taylor facilitated the flow of assistance to Afghanistan and promoted additional donations. The undertaking facilitated the repatriation of 2 million Afghan refugees and the restoration of critical services such education and health care. The aid helped restore agriculture, and provided support grants for over 80 infrastructure projects. In 2003 Secretary of State Colin L. Powell appointed Taylor as the Afghanistan Coordinator at the U.S. Department of State, overseeing all aspects of U.S. policy toward Afghanistan, noting that it was a critical time in Afghanistan’s political development and economic reconstruction.[11]

    Ambassador William B. Taylor met with the interim Fallujah city council April 2005

    In 2004 Taylor was transferred to Baghdad as Director of the Iraq Reconstruction Management Office.[12]

    Until 2006 he then was the U.S. Government’s representative to the Quartet’s effort to facilitate the Israeli disengagement from Gaza and parts of the West Bank, led by Special Envoy James Wolfensohn in Jerusalem. The Quartet Special Envoy was responsible for the economic aspects of this disengagement.

    Taylor was nominated by President George W. Bush to be United States ambassador to Ukraine while he was serving as Senior Consultant to the Coordinator of Reconstruction and Stabilization at the Department of State.[13] He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on May 26, 2006, and was sworn in on June 5, 2006. At the time Taylor assumed responsibilities at the embassy it was, with over 650 employees from nine U.S. government departments and agencies, the fifth-largest bilateral mission in Europe. A report by the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of State from 2007 notes that the new ambassador had “taken charge of the embassy in a remarkably effective and positive way,” creating, together with Deputy Chief of Mission Sheila Gwaltney, a “formidable team at a mission that has a complex set of goals.” It further noted that “Embassy Kyiv has a keen understanding of the complicated and rapidly evolving political and economic situation in the Ukraine and has good working relations across the political spectrum. The embassy’s commentary on such issues as the evolving state of Ukraine’s relations with the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and Russia is extensive, timely, and well appreciated by Washington end-users.”[14] Taylor held the post till May 2009.[2]

    On September 30, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama nominated John Tefft as U.S. ambassador to Ukraine.[15]
    Taylor was appointed Special Coordinator for Middle East Transitions in September 2011.[16] From from then through 2013, Taylor’s mission was to ensure effective U.S. support for the countries of the Arab revolutions, coordinating assistance to Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Syria.[17]

    In 2015, Taylor was appointed executive vice president of the United States Institute of Peace after serving a year in the same role in an acting capacity.[18][19] In this role he supported continued or increasing U.S. sanctions against Russia for its aggressions toward Ukraine.[20]

    Taylor became chargé d’affaires ad interim for Ukraine in June 2019, taking over the role from the deputy chief of mission, Kristina Kvien, after Marie Yovanovitch departed Ukraine.[21]

    Trump–Ukraine scandal[edit]

    Main article: Trump–Ukraine scandal

    Taylor–Sondland texts[edit]

    Taylor arrived in Ukraine a month after the abrupt ousting of Ambassador Yovanovitch and the inauguration of the country’s new president Volodymyr Zelensky. But following President Donald Trump’s phone call with the new Ukranian president, Taylor questioned Trump’s motivation in a text to Gordon Sondland, the United States Ambassador to the European Union: “Are we now saying that security assistance and WH meeting are conditioned on investigations?” Sondland told him to phone.[22]

    On October 3, 2019, it was revealed that Taylor had expressed, in text messages, concern that President Trump may have withheld aid to Ukraine unless they investigated. One, about alleged corruption in Ukraine involving former Vice President Joe Biden. The other, an attempt to deflect from the US intelligence communities’ consensus determination that Russia hacked the Democratic National Committee and interfered with the 2016 United States presidential election, by suggesting that the DNC is hiding the hacked server in the Ukraine. This one suggests that former DNC employee Seth Rich actually leaked the DNC emails and that Hillary Clinton had him murdered for it (see Murder of Seth Rich).

    Explicit throughout Taylor’s testimony was that Trump’s goal in withholding the congressionally mandated military aid to Ukraine was to extort newly inaugurated president of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelensky, into announcing an investigation into the theory related to Biden in a primetime American television interview. At the time, and through much of the preceding nascent Democratic Party Presidential Primary Election season, Biden was the leading candidate, and seemed likely to be the Democratic Party challenger to Trump in the 2020 United States Presidential Election. Additional incentive was provided for Ukraine to do as Trump, Sondland, and Guliani suggested, by implying that Zelensky would get a state visit to the White House if he complied.

    According to transcripts released by the house impeachment probe, Taylor on September 9, 2019, at 12:47:11 AM texted, “I think it’s crazy to withhold security assistance for help with a political campaign.” On October 22, 2019 Taylor’s opening statement also explained that Sondland required that Zelensky make public statements announcing an investigation, forcing him to conduct one, before the US released the allocated military aid. Taylor said he feared that Trump would withhold the military aid anyway, handing Moscow everything it wanted from the betrayal, texting Sondland that his “nightmare is that they [the Ukrainians] give the interview and don’t get the security assistance. The Russians love it. (And I quit.).”[23][24]

    Over four hours later, at 5:19:35 AM,[25] in his response to Taylor, Gordon Sondland, the United States Ambassador to the European Union, responded that the charge is “incorrect.” “Bill, I believe you are incorrect about President Trump’s intentions. The President has been crystal clear: no quid pro quo’s of any kind. The President is trying to evaluate whether Ukraine is truly going to adopt the transparency and reforms that President Zelensky promised during his campaign.”[25] He then suggested Taylor call the Executive Secretary of the United States Department of State about any concerns[26]: “I suggest we stop the back and forth by text If you still have concerns I recommend you give Lisa Kenna or S a call to discuss them directly. Thanks.”[27] In his testimony during the impeachment inquiry Sondland noted that it was only out of his deep respect for Taylor that he tried to address Taylor’s concerns.[28]
    Taylor gave a deposition before a closed-door session of the House Intelligence Committee on October 22, 2019.[29]

    Testimony in House impeachment inquiry[edit]

    Opening statement of Ambassador William B. Taylor

    On October 22, 2019, Taylor testified before the US Congressional House regarding the impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump and the Trump-Ukraine scandal in a closed session. Taylor’s opening statement was made public and directly implicated President Trump in a proactive and coordinated effort to solicit a political quid pro quo whereby “everything” -  from a one on one meeting with President Trump to $400 million in military aid to Ukraine – would be held up unless Ukrainian President Zelenskyy agreed to announce publicly that “investigations” would be launched including into former VP Joe Biden, his son Hunter Biden, Burisma, and Ukraine’s alleged involvement in the 2016 election. Taylor’s opening statement and testimony was widely viewed as an inflection point in the impeachment inquiry.[30][31][32][33][34]

    Personal Life[edit]

    Taylor is married to Dr. Deborah Furlan Taylor,[35] a religion scholar.[36][37] They have two children. His nephew (sister’s son) is actor and comedian Zach Cregger.

    See also[edit]

    • Kurt Volker
    • Trump–Ukraine scandal
    • Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump


    • U.S. Department of State biography
    • Presidential Nomination: William Brockenbrough Taylor


  • ^ “William B. Taylor Jr. – People – Department History – Office of the Historian”. cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ a b “New U.S. ambassador Tefft arrives in Kyiv”. Interfax-Ukraine. December 2, 2009. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  • ^ “ – Library of Congress”.
  • ^ Congressional Record Volume 152, Number 65 (Tuesday, May 23, 2006), “EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF COMMITTEES” Page S4965
  • ^ Washington Post, obituary “William B. Taylor Sr”, April 14, 2011 [1]
  • ^ Covering the Corridor, “Key figure in impeachment inquiry is Mount Vernon graduate,” Oct 23, 2019 [2]
  • ^ USMA 1969 Howitzer, Profile “William Brockenbrough Taylor, Jr.” p. 574.
  • ^ MSN, “Bill Taylor defended as a ‘man of honor’ and ‘public servant’ by three veterans who served with him,” Oct 27, 2019,[3]
  • ^ U.S. Department of State, bio William Taylor Jr.[4]
  • ^ “Oversight of the Structure and Management of the Department of Energy,” U.S. 96th Congress, 2nd Session,Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980, p. 262 and p. 275
  • ^ U.S. Department of State, “Coordinator for Afghanistan William B. Taylor, Jr.”, July 10, 2003, [5]
  • ^ The American Academy of Diplomacy, “William Taylor,”[6] accessed October 19, 2019.
  • ^ The Ukrainian Weekly,”Bush nominates new Ambassador to Ukraine” May 7, 2006 [7]
  • ^ The U.S. Department of State, “Report of Inspection: Inspection of Embassy, Kyiv Ukraine” Report Number ISP-I-07-17A, March 2007 [8]
  • ^ “Ex-US ambassador to Georgia John Tefft to lead diplomatic mission in Ukraine”. Interfax-Ukraine. September 30, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  • ^ “U.S. Institute of Peace Expert Named State Department Special Coordinator for Middle East Transitions” (Press release). United States Institute of Peace. September 15, 2011. Archived from the original on October 11, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2019. The U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP) has detailed Senior Vice President William Taylor to the Department of State to oversee the newly created Middle East Transitions Office. The transfer was effective September 6, 2011.
  • ^ Center for U.S. – Ukrainian Relations, “US-Ukraine Working Group Yearly Summit IV”, accessed Oct 24, 2019 [9]
  • ^ United States Institute of Peace, “Ambassador William B. Taylor Named Executive Vice President at USIP” July 20, 2015 [10]
  • ^ The Washington Post,”Smoking texts spotlight diplomat Bill Taylor’s discomfort with Trump’s Ukraine pressure campaign”, October 4, 2019 [11]
  • ^ NPR, “Trump Should Not Sit Down With Putin At G-20 Summit, Taylor Says”, Nov. 29, 2018
  • ^ Bonner, Brian (June 18, 2019). “Ambassador William B. Taylor returns to Ukraine to lead US mission”. Kyiv Post. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  • ^ U.S. News and World Report, “Unsung Diplomat Is Unlikely Hero in Impeachment Inquiry,” October 21, 2019 [12]
  • ^, “Top diplomat tells lawmakers Ukraine aid was directly tied to investigations,” October 23, 2019 [13]
  • ^ “Google Drive, “Opening Statement of Ambassador William B. Taylor – October 22, 2019”, October 23, 2019 [14]
  • ^ a b “Chairmen Letter On State Department Texts”. United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Oversight and Reform, and Foreign Affairs Committees. October 3, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  • ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Barnes, Julian E.; Baker, Peter (October 3, 2019). “Texts from Top Diplomat Described ‘Crazy’ Plan to Keep Aid from Ukraine”. The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  • ^ “READ: Text messages between US diplomats and Ukrainians released by House Democrats”. CNN. October 4, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  • ^
    the New York Times, “Gordon Sondland, E.U. Envoy, Testifies Trump Delegated Ukraine Policy to Giuliani”, October 17, 2019 [15]
  • ^ Gearan, Anne; Bade, Rachael; Wagner, John. “U.S. envoy says he was told release of Ukraine aid was contingent on public declaration to investigate Bidens, 2016 election”. Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  • ^ “Opening Statement of Ambassador William B. Taylor”. The Washington Post. October 22, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  • ^ CNN, Manu Raju, Jeremy Herb, Lauren Fox, Kylie Atwood and Gloria Borger. “US diplomat directly ties Trump to Ukraine quid pro quo”. CNN. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  • ^ “‘Ultimately Alarming Circumstances’: Read Acting Ambassador to Ukraine Bill Taylor’s Full Opening Statement to Congressional Investigators”. Time. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  • ^ Herridge, Catherine (October 22, 2019). “Diplomat Bill Taylor testifies two channels were created for Ukraine policy, ‘one regular, one irregular'”. Fox News. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  • ^ October 23, 2019 / Renato Mariotti: The President Has No Defense
  • ^ Virginia Department of Health; Richmond, Virginia; Virginia Marriages, 1936-2014; Roll: 101173250
  • ^ Dissertation Abstracts International: The Humanities and Social Sciences, microfilm 1991
  • ^ Unian, “An Interview with Interview with U.S. Ambassador & Mrs. William Taylor,” Jan 23 , 2007 [16]
  • External links[edit]

    • Appearances on C-SPAN

    Backpacker murders

    The backpacker murders were a spate of serial killings that took place in New South Wales, Australia, between 1989 and 1993, committed by Ivan Milat. The bodies of seven missing young people aged 19 to 22 were discovered partially buried in the Belanglo State Forest, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south-west of the New South Wales town of Berrima. Five of the victims were foreign backpackers (three German, two British) and two were Australian travellers from Melbourne. Milat was convicted of the murders on 27 July 1996 and was sentenced to seven consecutive life sentences, as well as 18 years without parole. He died in prison on 27 October 2019, having never confessed to the murders for which he was convicted.[1]


    • 1 Murders
      • 1.1 Background
      • 1.2 First and second victims
      • 1.3 Third and fourth victims
      • 1.4 Fifth, sixth and seventh victims
      • 1.5 Search for the serial killer
    • 2 Ivan Milat
      • 2.1 Background
      • 2.2 Arrest and trial
      • 2.3 Incarceration and appeals
      • 2.4 Health and death
    • 3 Other developments
    • 4 In popular culture
    • 5 References
    • 6 External links



    Up until the mid-1990s, hitchhiking in Australia was viewed as an adventurous and inexpensive, if not completely safe, means of travel.[2] Encouraged by articles in travel publications such as Lonely Planet, backpackers on limited budgets sought ways to travel cheaply, such as purchasing used cars or using buses.[3] However, unsolved Australian missing-person cases such as that of Trudie Adams (1978), Tony Jones (1982), Naoko Onda (1987)[4] and Anna Rosa Liva (1991)[5] led to those who still hitchhiked to begin to travel in pairs for safety.

    By the time of the first Belanglo State Forest discoveries, several other backpackers had also disappeared. One case involved a young Victorian couple from Frankston, Deborah Everist (19) and James Gibson (19), who had been missing since leaving Sydney for ConFest, near Albury, on 30 December 1989.[6] Another related to Simone Schmidl (21), from Germany, who had been missing since leaving Sydney for Melbourne on 20 January 1991.[6] Similarly, a German couple, Gabor Neugebauer (21) and Anja Habschied (20), had disappeared after leaving a Kings Cross hostel for Mildura on 26 December 1991. Another involved missing British backpackers Caroline Clarke (21) and Joanne Walters (22), who were last seen in Kings Cross on 18 April 1992.[7]

    First and second victims[edit]

    A sign at the entrance to the Belanglo State Forest

    On 19 September 1992, two runners discovered a concealed corpse while orienteering in Belanglo.[8] The following morning, police discovered a second body 30 metres (98 ft) from the first.[9] Police quickly confirmed, via dental records, that the bodies were those of Clarke and Walters.[6] Walters had been stabbed 14 times; four times in the chest, once in the neck, and nine times in the back which would have paralysed her.[6] Clarke had been shot 10 times in the head at the burial site, and police believe she had been used as target practice.[6][10] After a thorough search of the forest, investigators ruled out the possibility of further discoveries within Belanglo State Forest.[11]

    Third and fourth victims[edit]

    In October 1993, a local man searching for firewood discovered bones in a particularly remote section of the forest.[12] He returned with police to the scene where two bodies were quickly discovered and later identified as Gibson and Everist. Gibson’s skeleton, found in a foetal position, showed eight stab wounds.[6] A large knife had cut through his upper spine causing paralysis, and stab wounds to his back and chest would have punctured his heart and lungs. Everist had been savagely beaten; her skull was fractured in two places, her jaw was broken and there were knife marks on her forehead. She had been stabbed once in the back.[13] The presence of Gibson’s body in Belanglo puzzled investigators as his camera had previously been discovered on 31 December 1989, and his backpack later on 13 March 1990, by the side of the road at Galston Gorge, in the northern Sydney suburbs, over 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the north.[7][6]

    Fifth, sixth and seventh victims[edit]

    On 1 November 1993, a skeleton was found in a clearing along a fire trail in the forest during a police sweep.[14] It was later identified as that of Schmidl,[7] and bore at least eight stab wounds: two had severed her spine and others would have punctured her heart and lungs.[15] Clothing found at the scene was not Schmidl’s, but matched that of another missing backpacker, Habschied.[6] The bodies of Habschied and Neugebauer were then found on a nearby fire trail, on 4 November 1993, in shallow graves 50 metres (160 ft) apart.[13] Habschied had been decapitated, and despite an extensive search, her skull was never found.[15][16] Neugebauer had been shot in the head six times.[15][17]

    There was evidence that some of the victims did not die instantly from their injuries.[18]

    Search for the serial killer[edit]

    In response to the finds, on 14 October 1993, Task Force Air, containing more than 20 detectives and analysts, was set up by the NSW Police.[19] On 5 November 1993, the NSW government increased the reward in relation to the Belanglo serial killings to $500,000.[19] Public warnings were also given, particularly aimed at international backpackers, to avoid hitchhiking along the Hume Highway.[6] After developing their profile of the killer, the police faced an enormous volume of data from numerous sources.[20] Investigators applied link analysis technology to Roads and Traffic Authority vehicle records, gym memberships, gun licensing, and internal police records. As a result, the list of suspects was progressively narrowed to a short list of 230, then to an even shorter list of 32.[21]

    There were similar aspects to all the murders.[22] Each of the bodies had been dumped in remote bush-land and covered by a pyramid of sticks and ferns.[22][23] Forensic study determined that each had suffered multiple stab wounds to the torso, and many showed signs of sexual assault. The killer, probably a local with a 4WD,[19] had evidently restrained and spent considerable time with the victims both during and after the murders, as campsites were discovered close to the location of each body. Matching .22 bullets, shell casings, and cartridge boxes from two weapons also linked the crime scenes.[19] Speculation arose that the crimes were the work of several killers,[24][25] given that most of the victims had been attacked while as pairs, had been killed in different ways, and buried separately.

    On 13 November 1993, police received a call from Paul Onions (24) in the U.K. On 25 January 1990, Onions had been backpacking in Australia and, while hitchhiking from Liverpool station towards Mildura, had accepted a ride south out of Casula from a man known only as “Bill”.[26][17] South of the town of Mittagong, and less than 1 km from Belanglo State Forest, Bill stopped and pulled out a revolver and some ropes stating it was a robbery, at which point Onions managed to flee while Bill pursued and shot at him.[27][28] Onions flagged down Joanne Berry, a passing motorist, and together they sped off and described the assailant and his vehicle to the Bowral police.[29] On 13 April 1994, detectives re-found the note regarding Onions’ call and sought the original report from Bowral police, but it was missing. Fortunately, a constable had recorded details in her notebook. Onions’ statement was corroborated by Berry, who had also contacted the investigation team, along with the girlfriend of a man who worked with Ivan Milat, who thought he should be questioned over the case.[30]

    Ivan Milat[edit]

    Main article: Ivan Milat


    Ivan Robert Marko Milat (27 December 1944 – 27 October 2019)[31] was the son of a Croatian emigrant, Stjepan Marko “Steven” Milat (1902–1983), and an Australian, Margaret Elizabeth Piddleston (1920–2001), who married when she was 16.[32][33][34] Milat was the fifth-born of their 14 children.[35] Many of the 10 Milat boys were well known to local police, and Milat displayed antisocial behaviour at a young age, leading to a stint in a residential school at age 13.[36] By 17, he was in a juvenile detention centre for theft, and at 19, was involved in a shop break in.[36] In 1964, he was sentenced to 18 months for a break and enter, and a month after release, he was arrested for driving a stolen car and was sentenced to 2 years hard labour.[36] In September 1967, aged 23, he was sentenced to 3 years for theft.[36] In April 1971, he was charged with the abduction of two 18 year-old hitchhikers and the rape of one of them.[37] While awaiting trial, he was involved in a string of robberies with some of his brothers, before faking his suicide and fleeing to New Zealand for a year.[36] He was rearrested in 1974, but the robbery and kidnap cases against him failed at trial with the help of the Milat’s family lawyer, John Marsden. Taking on a job as a truck driver in 1975, he met a 16-year-old girl who was then pregnant by his cousin, whom he married in 1983.[36] She left him in 1987 due to domestic violence and they divorced in October 1989.[36] By the time of the first crimes, Milat had worked on and off for 20 years for the Roads & Traffic Authority all over the state.[36]

    Arrest and trial[edit]

    On 26 February 1994, police surveillance of the Milat house at Cinnabar Street, Eagle Vale commenced.[36] Police learnt that Milat had recently sold his silver Nissan Patrol four-wheel drive shortly after the discovery of the bodies of Clarke and Walters.[38] Police also confirmed that Milat had not been working on any of the days of the attacks[36][39] and acquaintances also told police about Milat’s obsession with weapons.[8][40] Milat’s brother, Bill, who often had his identity used by his brother for work or vehicle registrations, was questioned by investigators.[36] When the connection between the Belanglo murders and Onions’ experience was made, Onions flew to Australia to help with the investigation.[41] On 5 May 1994, Onions positively identified Milat as the man who had picked him up and attempted to assault him.[12]

    Milat was arrested at his home on 22 May 1994 on robbery and weapon charges related to the Onions attack after 50 police officers surrounded the premises, including heavily armed officers from the Tactical Operations Unit.[14][39] The search of Milat’s home revealed various weapons, including a .22-calibre Anschütz Model 1441/42 rifle and parts of a .22 calibre Ruger 10/22 rifle that matched the type used in the murders, a Browning pistol, and a Bowie knife.[42] Also uncovered was foreign currency, clothing, a tent, sleeping bags, camping equipment and cameras belonging to several of his victims.[42][43] Homes belonging to his mother and five of his brothers were also searched at the same time by over 300 police,[44] uncovering a total of 24 weapons, 250 kg of ammunition, and several more items belonging to the victims.[42]

    Milat appeared in court on 23 May, but he did not enter a plea.[15] On 31 May, Milat was also charged with the seven backpacker murders.[42] On 28 June, Milat sacked his defence lawyer, Marsden, and sought legal aid to pay for his defence.[42] Meanwhile, brothers Richard and Walter were tried in relation to weapons, drugs and stolen items found on their properties.[42] A committal hearing for Milat regarding the murders began on 24 October and lasted until 12 December, during which over 200 witnesses appeared.[42] Based on the evidence, at the beginning of February 1995, Milat was remanded in custody until June that same year.

    On 26 March 1996, the trial opened at the NSW Supreme Court and was prosecuted by Mark Tedeschi.[45] His defence argued that, in spite of the evidence, there was no non-circumstantial proof Milat was guilty and attempted to shift the blame to other members of his family, particularly Richard.[45] 145 witnesses took the stand, including members of the Milat family who endeavoured to provide alibis, and, on 18 June, Milat himself.[46] On 27 July 1996, after 18 weeks of testimony, a jury found Milat guilty of the murders.[14][47] He was given a life sentence on each count without the possibility of parole. He was also convicted of the attempted murder, false imprisonment and robbery of Onions, for which he received six years’ jail each.[17]

    Incarceration and appeals[edit]

    On his first day, when arriving at Maitland Gaol, Milat was beaten by another inmate.[48] Almost a year later, on 16 May 1997, he made an escape attempt alongside convicted drug dealer and former Sydney councillor George Savvas.[49] The plan failed and Savvas was found hanged in his cell the next day, and Milat was transferred to the maximum-security super prison in Goulburn, New South Wales.[50]

    In November 1997, Milat appealed against his convictions due to a breach of his common law right to legal representation, as established in Dietrich v The Queen. However, the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal dismissed the appeal.[22] In 2004, Milat filed an application with the High Court that he be allowed special leave to appeal on new grounds. The application for leave was ultimately dismissed, affirming the Court of Criminal Appeal’s decision to disallow his initial appeal.[51][52] On 27 October 2005, in the NSW Supreme Court[53] Milat’s final avenue of appeal was refused.[54] In 2006, two other application attempts were rejected as well, as was one in November 2011.[46]

    In 2006, a toaster and TV given to Milat in his cell caused a public outcry.[55][46] On 26 January 2009, Milat cut off his little finger with a plastic knife, with the intention of mailing it to the High Court to force an appeal.[56] He was taken to Goulburn Hospital under high security; however, on 27 January 2009 Milat was returned to prison after doctors decided surgery was not possible.[57] Milat had previously self-harmed in 2001, when he swallowed razor blades, staples and other metal objects.[56] In May 2011, Milat went on a 9-day hunger strike, losing 25 kilograms in an unsuccessful attempt to be given a PlayStation.[58]

    Health and death[edit]

    In May 2019, Milat was transferred to Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, and was subsequently diagnosed with terminal oesophageal cancer.[59] Following his treatment he was transferred to Long Bay Correctional Centre to continue his custodial sentences.[60]

    On 9 August 2019, a terminally ill Milat was moved to a secure treatment unit located in the Prince of Wales Hospital following the loss of 20 kilograms in previous weeks; Milat was also exhibiting a high temperature. His status, however, was reported as not life threatening.[61]

    Milat died at 4:07 a.m. on 27 October 2019 while being treated at Long Bay Jail’s hospital wing. He was 74 years old.[62][63]

    Other developments[edit]

    Police maintain that Milat could have been involved in more attacks or murders than the seven for which he was convicted.[46] Based on MO similarities, examples include Keren Rowland (20, disappeared 26 February 1971, found in the Fairbairn Pine Plantation in May 1971), Peter Letcher (18, missing November 1987, found in the Jenolan State Forest in 1988), and Dianne Pennacchio (29, disappeared 6 September 1991, found in the Tallaganda State Forest in November 1991).[46][64] Further, given the possibility of an accomplice,[65] the murder cases were kept open.[46] On 18 July 2005, Milat’s former lawyer, Marsden, made a deathbed statement in which he claimed that Milat had been assisted by his sister, Shirley Soire (1946–2003), in the killings of the two British backpackers.[35][66]

    In 2001, Milat was ordered to give evidence at an inquest into the disappearances in the Newcastle area of three other female backpackers (Leanne Goodall, 20, disappeared 30 December 1978; Robyn Hickie, 18, disappeared 7 April 1979; Amanda Robinson, 14, disappeared 21 April 1979).[46][67] A related cold case is that of Gordana Kotevski (16) who disappeared in 1994.[68] Although Milat was working in the area at the time of the crimes, no case has been brought against him due to a lack of evidence.[69] Similar inquiries were launched in 2003, in relation to the disappearance of two nurses and again in 2005, relating to the disappearance of hitchhiker Annette Briffa, but no charges were laid.[70][71]

    In 2010, in a media interview, Onions described how he accepted, but did not use, a $200,000 reward granted for his part in the conviction of Milat.[46][72][73][74]

    In 2012, Milat’s great-nephew Matthew Milat and his friend Cohen Klein (both aged 19 at the time of their sentencing) were sentenced to 43 years and 32 years in prison, respectively, for murdering David Auchterlonie on his 17th birthday with an axe at the Belanglo State Forest in November 2010. Matthew Milat struck Auchterlonie with the double-headed axe as Klein audio-recorded the attack with a mobile phone.[75][76]

    In May 2015, Milat’s brother Boris Milat told Steve Aperen, a former homicide detective who serves as a consultant with the Los Angeles Police Department and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, that Milat was responsible for another shooting: that of taxi cab driver Neville Knight, in 1962 after Milat admitted to the crime. After conducting polygraph tests with Boris Milat and Allan Dillon, the man convicted of Knight’s shooting, Aperen is convinced that both men are telling the truth and that Milat did in fact shoot Knight.[77]

    In popular culture[edit]

    On 8 November 2004, Milat gave a televised interview on Australian Story, in which he denied that any of his family had been implicated in the seven murders.[78] The 2005 Australian film Wolf Creek is based on the backpacker murders of two British females.[79][80] A sequel, Wolf Creek 2, based on backpacker murders of two Germans, was released in 2013. A miniseries on the Seven Network, Catching Milat, screened in 2015 and focused on the members of “Task Force Air” who tracked Milat.[81] A book by Milat’s nephew, Alistair Shipsey, The Milat Letters (.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 1785547844) was released in 2016;[82][83] In December 2018, Australian author Amanda Howard was writing a book on his crimes, based on her correspondence with Milat.[84] In March 2019, Casefile True Crime Podcast began airing a five-part series on the crimes.[6]


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  • ^ Whittaker, Mark; Kennedy, Les (10 November 2007). Sins of the Brother: The Definitive Story of Ivan Milat and the Backpacker Murders. Pan Macmillan Australia. pp. 267–268, 322. ISBN 978-0-330-36284-9. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  • ^ Kennedy, Les (5 September 2010). “Back into heart of darkness”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  • ^ “Case 109: Belanglo (Part 2)”. 30 March 2019.
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  • ^ a b c d “Case 109: Belanglo (Part 2) cebo”. Casefile: True Crime Podcast. 30 March 2019.
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  • ^ a b c Regina v Milat [1998] NSWSC 795 (26 February 1998).
  • ^ Whittington-Egan, Richard; Whittington-Egan, Molly (18 October 2013). Murder on File. Neil Wilson Publishing. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-906476-53-3. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  • ^ Hickey, Eric W. (22 July 2003). Encyclopedia of Murder and Violent Crime. SAGE Publications. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-7619-2437-1. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  • ^ Maynard, Roger (30 January 2011). “Did Australia’s backpacker killer have an accomplice?”. The Independent. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  • ^ Starick, Paul (22 October 2015). “Belanglo State Forest once again the home of nightmarish murder”. The Advertiser. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  • ^ “Backpacker murders: How backpacker Paul Onions survived a close encounter with evil Ivan Milat”. Herald Sun. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  • ^ Oliver, Robin (26 July 2006). “Born to Kill – Ivan Milat”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  • ^ Murray, David (31 January 2010). “Backpacker who escaped Ivan Milat to return to Australia”. The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  • ^ Small, Clive (19 April 2014). “On the trail of a … serial killer”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  • ^ Brown, Malcolm; Feneley, Rick (24 November 2010). “Life never a picnic for the dirt-poor, troubled Milat clan”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  • ^ Brown, Malcolm; Feneley, Rick (24 November 2010). “Life never a picnic for the dirt-poor, troubled Milat clan”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  • ^ Kennedy, Les (28 November 2010). “Does crime run in the Milat family tree?”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  • ^ “Margaret Elizabeth Milat – HeavenAddress Resting Place”. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  • ^ a b Kennedy, Les (21 July 2005). “Milat case stalked by uncertainty”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k “Case 109: Belanglo (Part 3)”. 6 April 2019.
  • ^ “Ivan Milat Biography”. The Biography Channel. A+E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Marriott, Trevor (4 September 2013). The Evil Within – A Top Murder Squad Detective Reveals The Chilling True Stories of The World’s Most Notorious Killers. John Blake Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-78219-365-4. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ a b Bellamy, Patrick. “Ivan Milat: The Last Ride”. TruTV. Time Warner Inc. pp. 12–13. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Chapman, Simon (2013). Over Our Dead Bodies: Port Arthur and Australia’s Fight for Gun Control (PDF). Sydney University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-74332-031-0. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Bearup, Greg (21 September 2013). “1994: Clive Small, capturing Milat”. The Australian. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  • ^ a b c d e f g “Case 109: Belanglo (Part 4)”. Casefile: True Crime Podcast. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ “Ivan Milat”. Crime & Investigation Network. Foxtel. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Kidd, Paul B. (1 August 2011). Australia’s Serial Killers. Pan Macmillan Australia. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-74262-798-4. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  • ^ a b “The Trial”. Crime & Investigation Network. AETN UK. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h “Case 109: Belanglo (Part 5)”. Casefile: True Crime Podcast. 20 April 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ Walker, Frank (23 May 2004). “Milat’s brother claims police still treating him as murder suspect”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  • ^ “Skeleton key to unlock Ivan Milat mystery?”. Herald Sun. AAP. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ “Maitland Correctional Centre Escape Attempt”. Parliament of New South Wales. 20 May 1997. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ “Skeleton key to unlock Ivan Milat mystery?”. Herald Sun. AAP. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  • ^ Milat v The Queen [2004] HCA 17, (2004) 205 ALR 338; (2004) 78 ALJR (24 February 2004).
  • ^ “Serial killer Milat loses conviction appeal”. The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 28 May 2004. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  • ^ R v Milat (backpacker murders) [2005] NSWSC 920 (27 October 2005).
  • ^ “Serial killer’s appeal is refused”. BBC News. 7 November 2005. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ “Milat gets TV, toaster returned to cell”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ a b “Medics unable to reattach Milat’s finger”. The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  • ^ “Serial killer Ivan Milat cuts off finger in High Court protest”. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Bashan, Yoni (15 May 2011). “Ivan Milat on hunger strike over Playstation”. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  • ^ Cormack, Lucy (15 May 2019). “Serial killer Ivan Milat unlikely to return to supermax after terminal cancer diagnosis”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ “Ivan Milat moves to Long Bay jail hospital from Prince of Wales”. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  • ^ “Serial killer Ivan Milat transferred to Sydney hospital from jail”. The 7.30 Report. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  • ^ Thomas, Sarah (27 October 2019). “Ivan Milat, Australia’s most notorious serial killer, dead at 74”. ABC News. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  • ^ “Backpacker Serial Killer Ivan Milat Is Dead”. 10 daily. 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  • ^ “Time for Milat to confess”. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ “Milat case stalked by uncertainty”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 21 July 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ “Milat did not act alone, solicitor says”. The 7.30 Report. 19 July 2005. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ “Milat linked to 1970s missing persons case”. PM. 12 June 2001. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ “Cold cases linked to Ivan Milat reopened by new task force”. NewsComAu. 5 June 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ Connolly, Ellen (5 July 2002). “No peaceful rest”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ Kennedy, Les (8 December 2003). “Milat link to nurses missing since 1980”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ “Milat a suspect in teen’s cold-case ‘murder'”. The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 27 January 2005. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ “Serial killer hero rejects huge reward”. 30 January 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ “Briton to donate reward for identifying serial killer”. The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ Bevan, Nathan (7 February 2010). “Man who escaped backpacker killer talks for the first time”. walesonline. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  • ^ Wells, Jamelle (9 June 2012). “Milat relative gets 30 years for axe murder”. ABC News. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Dale, Amy (8 June 2012). “Matthew Milat sentenced to 30 years jail for ‘cold blooded’ murder”. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  • ^ Lees, Philippa (3 May 2015). “Detective Says ‘No Doubt’ Over Ivan Milat Claim”. Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ Stewart, John (8 November 2004). “Milat says brothers innocent”. ABC News. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  • ^ Johnston, Chris (19 November 2005). “Beware a wolf in crocodile clothing”. The Age. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  • ^ Joyce, James (29 October 2005). “No crime in using facts”. The Newcastle Herald. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  • ^ Blundell, Graeme (16 May 2005). “Catching Milat revisits backpacker murders”. The Australian. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  • ^ “The Milat Letters”. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  • ^ Murray, David; Cortis (16 May 2019). “Serial killer Milat ‘has little chance of survival'”. The Australian. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  • ^ Begley, Lucy Cormack, Patrick (18 May 2019). “‘He’s very confident of going to heaven’: the letters of Ivan Milat”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  • External links[edit]

    • Mitchell, Alex (25 January 2004). “Milat issues challenge to police boss”. The Age. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
    • “Into the Forest – Part 2”. Australian Story. 8 November 2004. Archived from the original on 14 January 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
    • “Milat accomplice claim rejected”. The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 16 July 2005. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
    • ‘I survived a serial killer’ – Paul Onions on Ivan Milat 60 Minutes Australia (1996) – YouTube
    • The Backpacker Murders: Ivan Milat | Crime Investigation Australia (2005) – YouTube
    • Did serial killer Ivan Milat brutally murder these other victims? (2017)
    • Terminally ill serial killer Ivan Milat sent back to prison Nine News Australia (2019) – YouTube

    2019 Grays incident

    Incident involving dead bodies in Grays, Essex, UK

    On 23 October 2019, the bodies of 39 people were found in a refrigerated articulated lorry in Grays, Essex, United Kingdom. They are thought to have been migrants being smuggled into the UK or victims of human trafficking.
    The trailer had been shipped from the port of Zeebrugge, Belgium, to Purfleet, UK, and the lorry cab is believed to have come from Northern Ireland, travelling to Great Britain by sea from Dublin to Holyhead. Investigations are being led by Essex Police, and involve the national authorities of the UK, Belgium, and Ireland.


    • 1 Incident
    • 2 Lorry
    • 3 Casualties
    • 4 Investigation
    • 5 Reactions
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links


    Location of lorry discovery in Essex

    On 23 October 2019, shortly after 01:40 BST, staff of the East of England Ambulance Service found 39 bodies in a refrigerated articulated lorry.[1] The lorry was in Eastern Avenue at the Waterglade Industrial Park in Grays, Essex. The ambulance service informed Essex Police, who arrived shortly after. Who called the ambulance service has not been confirmed.[2]

    Shortly after the police arrived, Eastern Avenue was closed and not fully re-opened until 25 October.[3][4] The lorry driver was a 25-year-old man from Portadown, County Armagh, Northern Ireland. He was arrested at the scene on suspicion of murder.[3][4]


    The lorry cab was registered in Bulgaria in 2017 in the name of a company owned by an Irish citizen, but had not returned there since, according to the Bulgarian authorities.[2][5] The refrigerated trailer was leased on 15 October from a rental company in County Monaghan.[6] Refrigerated trailers can be kept frozen to preserve perishables, and can be kept as cold as −25 °C (−13 °F).[3] Such trailers are normally airtight, which creates a suffocation risk for any occupants.[2]

    The lorry cab and the refrigerated trailer arrived separately in Purfleet, Essex, from where they travelled together the short distance to Grays. Police believe that the cab was driven from Northern Ireland on 19 October. It then travelled through the Republic of Ireland to Dublin, and from there by sea to Holyhead in Wales, from where it was driven to Purfleet.[7][8][9][10] The trailer was loaded onto the freight ferry Clementine in Zeebrugge in Belgium. It arrived in Purfleet, a town with a port on the Thames, at around 00:30 on 23 October and was picked up with the cab there about half-an-hour later.[9][11][12]

    Belgian authorities said that it was “highly unlikely” the casualties had entered the container at Zeebrugge. Dirk De Fauw, chairman of the port of Zeebrugge, told VRT News: “Breaking the seal, putting 39 people in a trailer and resealing the trailer without anybody noticing is virtually impossible.”[13]


    The ambulance service said that all 39 casualties were dead before they arrived, and attempts at resuscitation could not be made.[3] Essex police said that of the deceased, 31 were men and 8 women.[14][12] All were adults, except for one teenager.[8][9]

    The deceased are believed to have been either victims of human trafficking, for example as forced labourers, or migrants who paid smugglers to move them to the United Kingdom, or both. Smugglers often force migrants to work off the cost of the trip in slave-like conditions.[15][16] There have been a number of incidents in which migrants to Europe died or were injured as a result of dangerous transportation methods. In an incident in Dover in June 2000, 58 Chinese nationals died in similar circumstances.

    Initially, the police said that they believed the deceased to be Chinese nationals.[14][12] Liu Xiaoming, the Chinese ambassador, said that their nationality had not been confirmed.[17] Later media speculation suggested that at least six of the deceased may have been from Vietnam.[1] The family of a 26-year old Vietnamese woman made public her last text message to her parents which she sent as she was dying.[18] According to maritime tables, she was at this point in transit to Purfleet.[citation needed] Her family said they paid around £30,000 to smuggle their daughter from Vietnam to the UK.[19]


    A refrigerated articulated lorry, similar to the type involved in the incident

    During the morning of the day of the discovery, a murder investigation was launched.[4] Local media described it as “one of the biggest murder investigations the country has ever seen”. The National Crime Agency suggested that organised crime may be involved.[3] The lorry and bodies were moved from the scene to a secure location in Tilbury Docks, another nearby port on the Thames, to continue the investigation. Police later moved the bodies to a mortuary at Broomfield Hospital in Chelmsford for post-mortems to be carried out.[14][20]

    Taoiseach Leo Varadkar spoke in Dáil Éireann and said that Irish authorities would investigate any involvement regarding their country.[7] In the evening of 23 October, the Belgian prosecutor’s office announced that they would also investigate the lorry’s transit through their country.[12] The police suspect that a people-smuggling ring in Ireland may be involved.[21]

    By the morning of 24 October, police had traced the trailer to the Netherlands before its departure from Belgium.[22] British police had also searched two properties in Northern Ireland.[10] Belgian officials said that the deceased were trapped in the trailer for at least 10 hours.[23]

    On 25 October, police arrested a man and a woman from Warrington, Cheshire, on suspicion of manslaughter and conspiracy to traffic people,[24] and another man at Stansted Airport on the same charge.[25] On 27 October it was announced that these three had been released on bail.[26]

    On 26 October, Gardaí said they had detained a man in his 20s at Dublin Port who was of interest to Essex Police as part of its investigation into the lorry deaths. He was charged with unrelated offences.[27] Belgian authorities confirmed that this was the second lorry driver they had been searching for, who had been seen on CCTV ten times at Zeebrugge while dropping off the refrigerated trailer.[28]

    After extended questioning, on 26 October Essex Police charged the driver with 39 counts of manslaughter, conspiracy to traffic people, conspiracy to assist unlawful immigration and money laundering.[23][29] He appeared at Chelmsford Magistrates’ Court on 28 October, when the Crown Prosecution Service alleged that he was part of a “global ring” of people smugglers.[30] He was remanded in custody, to appear at the Central Criminal Court on 25 November.[31]

    On 28 October, the Belgian federal prosecutor said that people smugglers in Belgium, aiding in the operation, pretended that the migrant-filled container was filled with cookies and biscuits.[32] Police in Vietnam took hair, fingernail and other DNA samples from people in Nghệ An Province to help identify the deceased.[33]


    Grays from the Thameside

    British prime minister, Boris Johnson, said in a tweet that he was “appalled” at the incident, giving his thoughts to the victims and their families, adding that the Home Office was working alongside the Essex Police on the case.[34][8] Priti Patel, the home secretary, released a press statement saying that she was “shocked and saddened by this utterly tragic incident”. Patel also elaborated that Immigration Enforcement were working with the Essex Police. She asked for both organisations to be given space to complete the investigation;[8] the Essex Police and Crime Commissioner repeated this request.[3] António Guterres, the United Nations secretary-general, tweeted that those responsible “must be swiftly brought to justice”.[35] Diane Abbott, the shadow home secretary, said greater international co-operation was needed to prevent similar events happening again, adding “You cannot stop international people tracking gangs, if people trafficking is what this is, you can’t stop them without working internationally. … Yes, we can try and make our east coast ports more secure, but you have to have more international co-operation.”[36]

    Campaigners against human trafficking organised a vigil to take place outside the Home Office on 24 October in solidarity with the victims.[3] Following the incident, the Chief Executive of the charity group Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants said that the British government needs to open safe routes and make quick decisions regarding asylum seekers to prevent such attempts, sentiments echoed by the Refugee and Migrant Rights Director of Amnesty International UK.[3] Other refugee groups have expressed concern that the border confusion surrounding Brexit will give more opportunities for groups to commit similar crimes.[37] Channel 4 postponed a television series called Smuggled that was due to air on 28 October, in which British citizens try to smuggle themselves from mainland Europe to the UK.[38]

    Ambassador Liu Xiaoming tweeted, “We are in close contact with the British police to seek clarification and confirmation of the relevant reports”.[39][40] Following speculation that Vietnamese citizens may be amongst the deceased, Vietnamese prime minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc ordered the country’s Public Security Ministry and the authorities of its two central provinces of Hà Tĩnh and Nghệ An, where a number of missing citizens come from, to launch a probe on the case.[41] The prime minister also urged its Foreign Ministry to direct the Vietnamese embassy in UK to closely monitor the situation, co-ordinate with the British authorities to verify the victims’ identities and take protective measures in case it is confirmed Vietnamese are among the victims.[41]

    See also[edit]

    • Burgenland corpses discovery
    • Ranong human-smuggling incident


  • ^ a b “Essex lorry deaths: Vietnamese families fear relatives among dead”. BBC News. 25 October 2019. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
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  • External links[edit]

    • Young Vietnamese workers risking life and death on ‘the line’ to Europe Ivan Watson, Jo Shelley and Nguyen The Phuong, CNN